Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Theories of Immune Networks

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642839355

Page: 117

View: 198

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Theories of Immune Networks

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540516781

Page: 117

View: 374

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.

Artificial Immune Systems A New Computational Intelligence Approach

Atlan, H. & Cohen, I. R. (1989), Theories of Immune Networks, Springer- Verlag.
Bernardes, A. T. & dos Santos, R. M. Z. (1997), "Immune Network at the Edge of
Chaos", / theor. Biol, 186, pp. 173-187. Bersini, H. & Calenbuhr, V. (1997), ...

Artificial Immune Systems  A New Computational Intelligence Approach

Author: Leandro Nunes Castro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852335946

Page: 357

View: 419

Recently there has been a growing interest in the use of the biological immune system as a source of inspiration for solving complicated computational problems. The immune system involves many information-processing abilities including pattern recognition, learning, memory and inherent distributed parallel processing and for these, and other reasons, it has received a significant amount of interest as a metaphor within computing. This emerging field is known as Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), and applications of AIS include, machine learning, fault diagnosis, computer security, scheduling, virus detection and optimisation.

Workshop on stochastic modelling in biology

... I . R . ( 1989 ) Natural id - anti - id networks and the immunological homunculus
, in : Theories of Immune Networks , eds . Atlan , H . and Cohen , I . R . , Springer
Verlag , Heidelberg Paul W . E . ( 1989 ) The immune system : An introduction ...

Workshop on stochastic modelling in biology

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Cell to Cell Signalling

to immune network theory . In Theoretical Immunology , Part Two ( ed . A . S .
Perelson ) , pp . 321 - 43 . Addison - Wesley , Redwood City , CA . Segel , L . A .
and Perelson , A . S . ( 1989a ) A paradoxical instability caused by relatively short
 ...

Cell to Cell Signalling

Author: A. Goldbeter

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 647

View: 310

"These papers were first presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop 'Theoretical Models for Cell to Cell Signalling' held in Knokke-Zoute, Belgium, during September 1988. The Workshop was further supported by the Commission of the European Communities."--Preliminary page.

Scientific Activities

Bülthoff , H.H. and S. Edelman : Evaluating object recognition theories by
computer graphics psychophysics . ... De Boer , R.J. , A.U. Neumann , A.S.
Perelson , L.A. Segel and G. Weisbuch : Recent approaches to immune networks
. In : Proc .

Scientific Activities

Author: Mekhon Ṿaitsman le-madaʻ

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 668

The Generation of Diversity

The Concept of Idiotypic Network : Deficient or Premature ? In Theories of
Immune Networks , ed . H . Atlan and I . R . Cohen , 38 – 52 . Berlin :
SpringerVerlag . - 1993 . Cellular Tolerance as a Dynamic State of the Adaptable
Lymphocyte .

The Generation of Diversity

Author: Professor of Philosophy Emeritus Zoltan Kohn Professor Emeritus of Medicine Alfred I Tauber

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 508

View: 325

In recent decades immunology has been one of the most exciting--and successful--fields of biomedical research. Over the past thirty years immunologists have acquired a detailed understanding of the immune system's unique recognition mechanism and of the cellular and chemical means used to destroy or neutralize invading organisms. This understanding has been formulated in terms of the clonal selection theory, the dominant explanation of immune behavior. That story is the subject of The Generation of Diversity. A major problem for immunologists had long been to determine how cells of the immune system could produce millions of distinct antibodies--and produce them on demand. The clonal selection theory explains that cells with genetic instructions to produce each antibody exist in the body in small numbers until exposure to the right molecule--the antigen--triggers the selective cloning that will reproduce exactly the cell needed. But how can so many different antibody-producing cells be generated from such limited genetic material? The solution to this question came from new applications of molecular biology, and, as the authors argue, the impact of the new techniques changed both the methods and the concepts of immunology. The Generation of Diversity is an intellectual history of the major theoretical problem in immunology and its resolution in the post-World War II period. It will provide for immunologists essential background for understanding the conceptual conflicts occurring in the field today.

Ecological Physical Chemistry

Network Regulation of Autoimmunity : An Automaton Model . J . Autoimmunity , 2
, 1989 , pp . 613 - 625 . 15 ) H . Atlan and S . H . Snyder . Simulation of the
Immune Cellular Response by Small Neural Networks , in : Theories of Immune ...

Ecological Physical Chemistry

Author: C. Rossi

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN:

Page: 651

View: 927

A great debate has arisen about the necessity to distinguish between different physical chemistry approaches for investigating the behavior of natural systems. On the one side, it is necessary to recognize that the use of time-reversible classical and quantum physical chemistry approaches for studying molecular systems yields a big improvement in man's knowledge. On the other hand it is imperative to have new approaches, new time-irreversible theories, able to describe these relationships. Ecological physical chemistry is a new transdisciplinary field of study that addresses the relationships between complex molecular systems and/or organisms. This new field goes beyond the normal conceptions of scientific disciplines and tries to integrate and harmonize many different disciplinary perspectives. Ecological physical chemistry thus, wants to develop new theories and strategies for investigating the complexity of nature, and the present book is the first report on this intriguing new scientific discipline.

Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics II

Rouslan L. Stratonovich Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics II Advanced
Theory With ... of Cognition Editors : H. Haken , M. Stadler 46 Theories of Immune
Networks Editors : H. Atlan , I. R. Cohen 47 Relative Information Theories ...

Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics II

Author: Rouslan L. Stratonovich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540570516

Page: 225

View: 781

This two-volume work gives the first detailed coherent treatment of a relatively young branch of statistical physics - nonlinear nonequilibrium and fluctuational dissipative thermodynamics. This area of research has taken shape rather recently: its de~elopment began in 1959. The earlier theory - linear nonequilibrium ther modynamics - is in principle a simple special case of the new theory. Despite the fact that the title of the book includes the word 'nonlinear', it also covers the results of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The presentation of the linear and nonlinear theories is done within a common theoretical framework that is not subject to the linearity condition. The author hopes that the reader will perceive the intrinsic unjty of this dis cipline, the uniformity and generality of its constituent parts. This theory has a wide variety of applications in various domains of physics and physical chemistry, enabling one to calculate thermal fluctuations in various nonlinear systems. The book is divided into two volumes. Fluctuation-dissipation theorems (or relations) of various types (linear, quadratic and cubic, classical and quantum) are considered in the first volume. There one encounters the Markov and non-Markov fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs), theorems of the first, second and third kinds. Nonlinear FDTs are less known than their linear counterparts. The present second volume of the book deals with the advanced theory. It consists of four chapters. The connection and interdependence of the material in the various chapters of both volumes are illustrated in the accompanying diagram.

T Cell Vaccination and Autoimmune Disease

Natural Id - Anti - Id Networks and the Immunological Homunculus . In : Atlan H ,
Cohen IR eds . Theories of Immune Networks . Springer - Verlag 1989 : 6-12 . 28.
Cohen I , Young DB . Autoimmunity , microbial immunity and the immunological ...

T Cell Vaccination and Autoimmune Disease

Author: Jingwu Zhang

Publisher: R G Landes Company

ISBN:

Page: 174

View: 756

Self organization in Optical Systems and Applications in Information Technology

... U . an der Heiden , M . C . Mackey 37 The Physics of Structure Formation
Theory and Simulation Editors : W . Guttinger ... Theories of Immune Networks
Editors : H . Atlan , I . R . Cohen 47 Relative Information Theories and
Applications By G ...

Self organization in Optical Systems and Applications in Information Technology

Author: Mikhail Alekseevich Voront︠s︡ov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Page: 247

View: 386

Contrary to monographs on non-linear optics this book concentrates on problems of self-organization in various important contexts. The reader learns how patterns in non-linear optical systems are created and what theoretical methods can be applied to describe them. Next, various aspects of pattern formation such as associative memory, information processing, spatio-temporal instability, photo refraction, and so on are treated. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in physics and optical engineering.

B and T Cells in Immune Recognition

DOMINANT TOLERANCE AND ANTI - IDIOTYPE NETWORKS Two views
concerning rather general aspects of the ... Most of the observations on such
states can be accounted for by the ' theory of immune class regulation ' discussed
here .

B and T Cells in Immune Recognition

Author: F. Loor

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN:

Page: 504

View: 963

Quantum Noise

... Stadler Volume 46 Theories of Immune Networks Editors : H . Atlan , I . R .
Cohen Volume 47 Relative Information By G . Jumarie Theories and Applications
Volume 48 Dissipative Structures in Transport Processes and Combustion Editor
: D ...

Quantum Noise

Author: Crispin W. Gardiner

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN:

Page: 364

View: 968

Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

50 AGG 00389 Neuroendocrine - immune interactions : a theoretical approach to
aging * N . Fabris Chair of ... immune Introduction The systemic theories of aging
are based on the concept that the homeostatic networks , which are responsible ...

Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

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Brain Function and Oscillations

A selection of volumes in the Springer Series in Synergetics : Synergetics An
Introduction Theories of Immune Networks 3rd Edition By H. Haken Editors : H.
Atlan , I. R. Cohen Chemical Oscillations , Waves and Turbulence Neuronal ...

Brain Function and Oscillations

Author: Erol Ba?ar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Page: 363

View: 226

by W. J. Freeman These two volumes on "Brain Oscillations" appear at a most opportune time. As the "Decade of the Brain" draws to its close, brain science is coming to terms with its ultimate problem: understanding the mechanisms by which the immense number of neurons in the human brain interact to produce the higher cognitive functions. The ideas, concepts, methods, interpretations and examples, which are presented here in voluminous detail by a world-class authority in electrophysiology, summarize the intellectual equipment that will be required to construct satisfactory solutions to the problem. Neuroscience is ripe for change. The last revolution of ideas took place in the middle of the century now ending, when the field took a sharp turn into a novel direction. During the preceding five decades the prevailing view, carried forward from the 19th century, was that neurons are the carriers of nerve energy, either in chemical or electrical forms (Freeman, 1995). That point of view was enormously productive in terms of coming to understand the chemical basis for synaptic transmission, the electrochemistry of the ac tion potential, the ionic mechanisms of membrane currents and gates, the functional neuroanatomy that underlies the hierarchy of reflexes, and the neural fields and'their resonances that support Gestalt phenomena. No bet ter testimony can be given of the power of the applications of this approach than to point out that it provides the scientific basis for contemporary neu rology, neuropsychiatry, and brain imaging.

Electrical Engineering in Japan

In this paper , to search for multiple optimal solutions , we have expanded the
immune algorithm by adding ( 1 ) a mechanism for differentiating , effective
antibodies obtained in the search processes into ... Theories of Immune Networks
.

Electrical Engineering in Japan

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

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Abstracts

Hosp., Jerusalem, Israel "Neural" networks can be used to simulate regulatory
processes in immunology. ... versus Continuous Time Approach to the
Autoimmune Response", in: Symposium on "Theories of the Immune Networks",
edited by H.

Abstracts

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780895743039

Page: 969

View: 132

1997 27th International Symposium on Multiple Valued Logic

( 4 ) H. Atlan , and I.R. Cohen , eds . , Theories of Immune Networks , Springer -
Verlag , Berlin , 1989 . ( 5 ) A.S. Perelson , “ Immune network theory ” , Immunol .
ogy Review , no . 10 , pp . 5-36 , 1989 . ( 6 ) T. Ikegami , “ Dynamical behavior of ...

1997 27th International Symposium on Multiple Valued Logic

Author:

Publisher: IEEE

ISBN: 9780818679100

Page: 293

View: 188

Proceedings of the May 1997 symposium. MVL researchers from around the world present 37 papers in sessions on algebra, device technology, circuits, fuzzy logic, logic design, philosophical aspects, spectral techniques, testing and fault simulation, and applications. In addition, three invited addresses--recent developments in DNA- computing; many-valuedness and uncertainty; and ternary decision diagrams (survey)--further illustrate the diverse nature of multiple-valued research. Topics of the papers include finding composition trees for multiple-valued functions; hyperclones on a finite set; and multiple-valued logic as a programming language. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.