The topics are treated at various levels of difficulty both qualitatively and quantitatively. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in earth and atmospheric sciences, and astrophysics.
Author: Nicole Meyer-Vernet
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The Sun continually ejects matter into space, blowing a huge bubble of supersonic plasma. This solar wind bathes the whole solar system and shapes all planetary environments. The growth of space technology has considerably increased our knowledge of this medium. This 2007 book presents an introduction to the subject, starting with basic principles and including all the latest advances from space exploration and theory. It contains a short introduction to plasma physics and discusses the structure of the solar interior and atmosphere, the production of solar wind and its perturbations. It explains the objects of the Solar System, from dust to comets and planets, and their interaction with the solar wind. The final sections explore the astrophysical point of view. The topics are treated at various levels of difficulty both qualitatively and quantitatively. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in earth and atmospheric sciences, and astrophysics.
This volume represents the state of the art of the science covered by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division IV: Solar Wind and Interplanetary Field.
Author: Mari Paz Miralles
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume represents the state of the art of the science covered by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division IV: Solar Wind and Interplanetary Field. It contains a collection of contributions by top experts addressing and reviewing a variety of topics included under the umbrella of the division. It covers subjects that extend from the interior of the Sun to the heliopause, and from the study of physical processes in the Sun and the solar wind plasma to space weather forecasts. The book is organized in 6 parts: the solar interior, the solar atmosphere, the heliosphere, heliophysical processes, radio emissions, and coordinated science in the Sun-Earth system. In addition, we highlight some of the results presented during the IAGA Division IV symposia in the 11th Scientific Assembly of IAGA in Sopron, Hungary, on 23-30 August 2009, which was planned simultaneously with this book.
The Tenth Solar Wind conference describes the latest results in the physics of the outer solar atmosphere, the solar wind, and the interplanetary medium which together comprise the heliosphere.
Author: Marco Velli
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
The Tenth Solar Wind conference describes the latest results in the physics of the outer solar atmosphere, the solar wind, and the interplanetary medium which together comprise the heliosphere. The conference brought together researchers studying the sun and its influence on the earth’s space environment both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The effect of the solar magnetic field in shaping and accelerating the solar wind throughout the solar cycle, via coronal heating and coronal mass ejections was described in unprecedented clarity and breadth, thanks to both satellite experiments and numerical modelling. The conference proceedings is of interest to researchers in space science and the geomagnetic effects of solar activity, plasma physicists and astrophysicists as well as other scientists interested in the life of our mother star.
As a star, the sun is continuously emitting an enormous amount of energy 33 into space, up to as much as 3. 9 X 10 erg/ s. This energy emission consists of three modes.
Author: Syun-Ichi Akasofu
As a star, the sun is continuously emitting an enormous amount of energy 33 into space, up to as much as 3. 9 X 10 erg/ s. This energy emission consists of three modes. Almost all the energy is emitted in the form of the familiar black-body radiation, commonly called sunlight. Although the amount of energy emitted is small, the sun also emits x rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and UV radiations, which are absorbed above the earth's stratosphere. These constitute the second mode of solar energy, separate from the black-body radiation that penetrates the lower layers of the atmosphere. The sun has another important mode of energy emission in which the energy is carried out by charged particles. These particles have a very wide range of energies, from less than I keY to more than I GeV. Because of this wide range, it is convenient to group them into two components: particles with energies greater than 10 keY and the lower-energy particles. The former are generally referred to as solar protons or solar cosmic rays; their emission is associated with active features on the sun. Their interaction with the atmosphere is similar to that of the x ray and EUV radiation. Low-energy particles constitute plasma, a gas of equal numbers of positive and negative particles. Actually, this plasma is the outermost part of the solar atmosphere, namely the corona, which blows out continuously . For this reason, the plasma flow is called the solar wind.
The primary topic of this Workshop was the impact of SOHO observations on our understanding of the nature and evolution of coronal holes and the acceleration and composition of the solar wind.
Author: John Kohl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The SOHO-7 Workshop was held from 28 September through 1 October 1998 at the Asticou Inn in Northeast Harbor, Maine. The primary topic of this Workshop was the impact of SOHO observations on our understanding of the nature and evolution of coronal holes and the acceleration and composition of the solar wind. The presentations and discussions occasionally went beyond this topic to include the impact of the reported research on other solar structures and the heliosphere. SOHO (the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, was launched in December 1995 and began its science operations during the first few months of 1996. To many solar and space physicists, it was a great advantage that SOHO began itscomprehensive look at the Sun during the 1996 solar minimum. The qualitatively simple two-phase corona, with polar coronal holes expanding into the high-speed solar wind, and a steady equatorial streamer belt related somehow to the stochastic slow-speed solar wind, allowed various SOHO diagnostics to be initiated with a reasonably well understoodcircumsolar geometry. The analysis of subsequentSOHO measurements made during the rising phase of solar cycle 23 will continue to benefit from what has been learned from the first two years of data.
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective.
Author: Roberto Bruno
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in order to explain the transport of mass, momentum and energy during the expansion. Further, existing models are compared with direct observations in the heliosphere. The problem of self-similar and anomalous fluctuations in the solar wind is then addressed using tools provided by dynamical system theory and discussed on the basis of available models and observations. The book highlights observations of Yaglom's law in solar wind turbulence, which is one of the most important findings in fully developed turbulence and directly related to the long-lasting and still unsolved problem of solar wind plasma heating. Lastly, it includes a short chapter dedicated to the kinetic range of fluctuations, which has recently been receiving more attention from the space plasma community, since this is inherently related to turbulent energy dissipation and consequent plasma heating. It particularly focuses on the nature and role of the fluctuations populating this frequency range, and discusses several model predictions and recent observational findings in this context.
This is the first book to give a comprehensive overview of recent observational and theoretical results on solar wind structures and fluctuations and magnetohydrodynamic waves and turbulence, preference being given to phenomena in the inner ...
Author: C.-Y. Tu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is the first book to give a comprehensive overview of recent observational and theoretical results on solar wind structures and fluctuations and magnetohydrodynamic waves and turbulence, preference being given to phenomena in the inner heliosphere. Emphasis is placed on the progress made in the past decade in the understanding of the nature and origin of especially small-scale, compressible and incompressible fluctuations. Turbulence models describing the spatial transport and spectral transfer of the fluctuations in the inner heliosphere are discussed. Intermittency of solar wind fluctuations and their statistical distributions are investigated. Studies of the heating and acceleration effects of the turbulence on the background wind are critically surveyed. Finally, open questions concerning the origin, nature and evolution of the fluctuations are listed, and perspectives for future research are outlined. The book is for graduate students and researchers in the field. Other target groups are scientists and professionals interested in space plasma physics and/or MHD turbulence.
This work, detailing the integration and new interpretation of the MGS and Phobos results, is a primary reference for the researcher studying solar wind/planet interactions.
Author: Daniel Winterhalter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Given that the question of an internal magnetic field is of fundamental importance to the understanding of Mars' formation and thermal evolution, and of the evolution of Mars' atmosphere, surprisingly few of the many spacecraft sent to Mars were equipped with instrumentation for such investigations. Of the 9 or so orbiters that have successfully archived Mars orbit, even if for a short period of time, only two have returned useful data about the magnetic field and about the plasma environment near Mars: The Phobos 2 spacecraft, and more recently, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). With the discovery by MGS that Mars has large remnant magnetic field structures indicating an internal dynamo long extinct, the true nature of the past and present interaction between Mars and the solar wind comes, for the first time, into sharp focus. This work, detailing the integration and new interpretation of the MGS and Phobos results, is a primary reference for the researcher studying solar wind/planet interactions.
This comprehensive reference work covers the solar interior, magnetism and radiation, plasma heating and acceleration, the sun's atmosphere, and solar activity.
Author: Nour E. Raouafi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A comprehensive view of our Sun at the start of a new era in solar and heliospheric physics Humans have been observing and studying our Sun for centuries, yet much is still unknown about the processes that drive its behavior. Thanks to a new generation of space missions and ground telescopes, we are poised to dramatically increase our understanding of the Sun and its environment. Solar Physics and Solar Wind explores advances in solar and heliospheric research over recent decades, as well as the challenges that remain. This comprehensive reference work covers the solar interior, magnetism and radiation, plasma heating and acceleration, the sun's atmosphere, and solar activity. Volume highlights include: Explanations for processes in the solar interior New insights on the solar wind The challenges of measuring the Sun's magnetic field and its radiative output Description of solar atmospheric phenomena such as spicules and jets New developments in understanding flares and coronal mass ejections Ongoing research into how the solar corona is heated The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
Author: Wendy Battin
Publisher: Doubleday Books
The 1984 winner of the National Poetry Series Competition focuses on the theme of boundaries--between land and sea, the physical and the spiritual, and the waking world and dreams, as well as those of time, the universe, and the mind
This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind.
Author: Hermann Lühr
This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. With focus on research carried out within the German Priority Program ”PlanetMag”, it also provides an overview of the most recent research in the field. Magnetic fields play an important role in making a planet habitable by protecting the environment from the solar wind. Without the geomagnetic field, for example, life on Earth as we know it would not be possible. And results from recent space missions to Mars and Venus strongly indicate that planetary magnetic fields play a vital role in preventing atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. However, very little is known about the underlying interaction between the solar wind and a planet’s magnetic field. The book takes a synergistic interdisciplinary approach that combines newly developed tools for data acquisition and analysis, computer simulations of planetary interiors and dynamos, models of solar wind interaction, measurement of ancient terrestrial rocks and meteorites, and laboratory investigations.
As a result, this book will appeal to a broad community of space scientists and be of interest to astronomers who are looking at tail-like structures beyond our solar system.
Author: Andreas Keiling
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
All magnetized planets in our solar system (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) interact strongly with the solar wind and possess well developed magnetotails. However, Mars and Venus have no global intrinsic magnetic field, yet they possess induced magnetotails. Comets have a magnetotail that is formed by the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the case of planetary satellites (moons), the magnetotail refers to the wake region behind the satellite in the flow of either the solar wind or the magnetosphere of its parent planet. The largest magnetotail in our solar system is the heliotail, the “magnetotail” of the heliosphere. The great differences in solar wind conditions, planetary rotation rates, ionospheric conductivity, and physical dimensions provide an outstanding opportunity to extend our understanding of the influence of these factors on magnetotail processes and structure. Volume highlights include: A discussion of why a magnetotail is a fundamental issue in magnetospheric physics A unique collection of tutorials that cover a large range of magnetotails in our solar system A comparative approach to magnetotail phenomena, including reconnection, current sheet, rotation rate, plasmoids, and flux robes A review of global simulation studies of the effect of ionospheric outflow on the magnetosphere-ionosphere system dynamics Magnetotails in the Solar System brings together for the first time in one book a collection of tutorials and current developments addressing different types of magnetotails. As a result, this book will appeal to a broad community of space scientists and be of interest to astronomers who are looking at tail-like structures beyond our solar system.