The American Naturalist

... and as atmospheric friction is the only resistance to such translation , speed of flight is determined 1891. ) 793 Problem of the Soaring Birds .

The American Naturalist

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Zoe

September , 1891. The Problem of the Soaring Birds : I. Lancaster . Fossil Birds from the Equus Beds of Oregon : R. W. Shufeldt , M. D. An abstract of a ...

Zoe

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"A biological journal" (varies).

Birdflight as the Basis of Aviation

Lilienthal was the real founder of out-of-door experimenting." --Wilbur Wright It is hoped that repunlishing this great book will give 21st Century people a genuine appreciation of what Otto Lilienthal did for mankind.

Birdflight as the Basis of Aviation

Author: Otto Lilienthal

Publisher: Markowski International

ISBN:

Page: 151

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ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT BOOKS EVER PUBLSHED, it's the work of a creative genius whose observation, analysis, ingenuity, and daring laid the foundation for the development of aviation! It includes over 100 fascinating drawings, graphs, and diagrams, as well as engineering analyses, and many historic photographs of Lilienthal flying-in the 1890s, as well as a handy index. After a comprehensive scientific study of how birds fly, Lilienthal recognized the superiority of curved wing surfaces, and then developed a theory of flight. From 1891 to 1896 he designed, built, and flew a series of hanggliders, becoming the first man to fly. He made over 2,000 glides-bridging the gap between those who dreamed of flying and those who actually flew. Learning of Lilienthal's tragic fatal gliding accident of August 9, 1896, the Wright Brothers became inspired to investigate "the problem of human flight." Moved by his last words, "Sacrifices must be made," Lilienthal's work had a tremendous influence on the Wrights, who considered him a hero. They carefully studied his work, developed their own theories and designs, and invented the airplane. WILBUR WRIGHT PRAISES OTTO LILIENTHAL FOR HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO AVIATION Wilbur wrote this short article about what Otto meant to him, just a few days before he took ill and died of typhoid fever on May 30, 1912. It was published posthumously in the September 1912 issue of The Bulletin of the Aero Club of America. "Of all the men who attacked the flying problem in the 19th century, Otto Lilienthal was easily the most important. His greatness appeared in every phase of the problem. No one equaled him in power to draw new recruits to the cause; no one equaled him in fullness and dearness of understanding and the principles of flight; no one did so much to convince the world of the advantages of curved wing surfaces; and no one did so much to transfer the problem of human flight to the open air where it belonged. As a missionary he was wonderful. He presented the cause of human flight to his readers so earnestly, so attractively, and so convincingly that it was difficult for anyone to resist the temptation to make an attempt at it himself, even though his sober judgment and the misfortunes of all predecessors warned him to avoid touching it. If Lilienthal had done nothing more than this, he still would have been one of the greatest contributors to the final success. But he was much more than a missionary. As a scientific investigator, none of his contemporaries was his equal. He set forth the advantages of arched wings in such convincing manner as to make him the real originator of this feature. Others had noted that birds' wings were arched and had speculated on the possibility that an arched wing was superior to an absolutely true plane, but Lilienthal demonstrated the reason why it was better, and changed mere speculation into accepted knowledge. He also devoted an enormous amount of time and patience to experiment with test surfaces for the purpose of determining the best shapes for wings and for the amount of pressures to be obtained at the various angles of incidence. For nearly twenty years, his tables and charts were the best to be found in print. His work in this line alone would have been sufficient to place Lilienthal on the front rank, yet there still remains to be mentioned his greatest contribution to the cause. Lilienthal was the real founder of out-of-door experimenting." --Wilbur Wright It is hoped that repunlishing this great book will give 21st Century people a genuine appreciation of what Otto Lilienthal did for mankind.

Zoological Record

Efv . Ak . Förh , 1891 , p . 196 . [ Tetraonide , p . 35. ] KUTTER , F. [ See SCHALOW , H. ] LANCASTER , J. The problem of the Soaring Birds .

Zoological Record

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"Zoological Record is published annually in separate sections. The first of these is Comprehensive Zoology, followed by sections recording a year's literature relating to a Phylum or Class of the Animal Kingdom. The final section contains the new genera and subgenera indexed in the volume." Each section of a volume lists the sections of that volume.

The Zoological Record

Efv . Ak . Förh . 1891 , p . 195 . Tetraonide , p . 35. ] KCTTER , F. ( See SCHALOW , H. ] LANCASTER , J. The problem of the Soaring Birds .

The Zoological Record

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Indexes the world's zoological and animal science literature, covering all research from biochemistry to veterinary medicine. The database provides a collection of references from over 4,500 international serial publications, plus books, meetings, reviews and other no- serial literature from over 100 countries. It is the oldest continuing database of animal biology, indexing literature published from 1864 to the present. Zoological Record has long been recognized as the "unofficial register" for taxonomy and systematics, but other topics in animal biology are also covered.