The Origins of Virtue

What are the reasons for altrusim? Matt Ridley explains how the human mind has evolved a special instinct for social exchange, offering a lucid and persuasive argument about the paradox of human benevolence.

The Origins of Virtue

Author: Matt Ridley

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141927054

Page: 304

View: 511

Why are people nice to each other? What are the reasons for altrusim? Matt Ridley explains how the human mind has evolved a special instinct for social exchange, offering a lucid and persuasive argument about the paradox of human benevolence.

Moral Origins

But evolutionary anthropologist Christopher Boehm finds existing explanations lacking, and in Moral Origins, he offers an elegant new theory.

Moral Origins

Author: Christopher Boehm

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 0465029191

Page: 432

View: 161

From the age of Darwin to the present day, biologists have been grappling with the origins of our moral sense. Why, if the human instinct to survive and reproduce is "selfish," do people engage in self-sacrifice, and even develop ideas like virtue and shame to justify that altruism? Many theories have been put forth, some emphasizing the role of nepotism, others emphasizing the advantages of reciprocation or group selection effects. But evolutionary anthropologist Christopher Boehm finds existing explanations lacking, and in Moral Origins, he offers an elegant new theory. Tracing the development of altruism and group social control over 6 million years, Boehm argues that our moral sense is a sophisticated defense mechanism that enables individuals to survive and thrive in groups. One of the biggest risks of group living is the possibility of being punished for our misdeeds by those around us. Bullies, thieves, free-riders, and especially psychopaths -- those who make it difficult for others to go about their lives -- are the most likely to suffer this fate. Getting by requires getting along, and this social type of selection, Boehm shows, singles out altruists for survival. This selection pressure has been unique in shaping human nature, and it bred the first stirrings of conscience in the human species. Ultimately, it led to the fully developed sense of virtue and shame that we know today.A groundbreaking exploration of the evolution of human generosity and cooperation, Moral Origins offers profound insight into humanity's moral past -- and how it might shape our moral future.

The Political Economy of Virtue

'The Political Economy of Virtue' offers an interpretation of political economy in the second half of the 18th century. It covers the key turning points in the development of French political economy.

The Political Economy of Virtue

Author: John Shovlin

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801474187

Page: 265

View: 495

'The Political Economy of Virtue' offers an interpretation of political economy in the second half of the 18th century. It covers the key turning points in the development of French political economy.

Moral Markets

Markets not only need that instinct; they also nurture it. This simple and beautiful idea has been disinterred by the authors of this book from beneath the cynical sophistries of the twentieth century.

Moral Markets

Author: Paul J. Zak

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 344

View: 105

Drawing on converging evidence from neuroscience, social science, biology, law, and philosophy, Moral Markets makes the case that modern market exchange works only because most people, most of the time, act virtuously. --from publisher description

The Origins of Fairness

Develops further John Rawls' intuition that our sense of justice is rooted in our evolutionary past and presents a new theory of morality based on evolutionary biology.

The Origins of Fairness

Author: Nicolas Baumard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190210222

Page: 272

View: 847

In order to describe the logic of morality, "contractualist" philosophers have studied how individuals behave when they choose to follow their moral intuitions. These individuals, contractualists note, often act as if they have bargained and thus reached an agreement with others about how to distribute the benefits and burdens of mutual cooperation. Using this observation, such philosophers argue that the purpose of morality is to maximize the benefits of human interaction. The resulting "contract" analogy is both insightful and puzzling. On one hand, it captures the pattern of moral intuitions, thus answering questions about human cooperation: why do humans cooperate? Why should the distribution of benefits be proportionate to each person's contribution? Why should the punishment be proportionate to the crime? Why should the rights be proportionate to the duties? On the other hand, the analogy provides a mere as-if explanation for human cooperation, saying that cooperation is "as if" people have passed a contract-but since they didn't, why should it be so? To evolutionary thinkers, the puzzle of the missing contract is immediately reminiscent of the puzzle of the missing "designer" of life-forms, a puzzle that Darwin's theory of natural selection essentially resolved. Evolutionary and contractualist theory originally intersected at the work of philosophers John Rawls and David Gauthier, who argued that moral judgments are based on a sense of fairness that has been naturally selected. In this book, Nicolas Baumard further explores the theory that morality was originally an adaptation to the biological market of cooperation, an arena in which individuals competed to be selected for cooperative interactions. In this environment, Baumard suggests, the best strategy was to treat others with impartiality and to share the costs and benefits of cooperation in a fair way, so that those who offered less than others were left out of cooperation while those who offered more were exploited by their partners. It is with this evolutionary approach that Baumard ultimately accounts for the specific structure of human morality.

Virtue Signaling

If you don't understanding virtue signaling in the political realm, it's hard to convince other citizens to support your causes, policies, and candidates.This book collects seven essays written from 1996 through 2018.

Virtue Signaling

Author: Geoffrey Miller

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781951555009

Page: 200

View: 849

'Virtue signaling' is the phrase that got popular on social media during the 2016 election as a way of derogating political opponents. But what is virtue signaling, really? How does it work, where does it come from, and is it really a bad thing? How can it help people to virtue signaling better -- when you're doing it, and when your friends, family, colleagues, and mates are doing it? This short, thoughtful, easy-to-read book is about how we can better understand people's instincts to show off our moral virtues, personality traits, ideologies, political attitudes, and lifestyle choices through our public behavior and language, from dating to street protests to social media to academic censorship. It shows how virtue signaling is the key to understanding current debates about free speech and viewpoint diversity on campuses, in corporations, and throughout society. Understanding virtue signaling is a social superpower, like understanding body language, or personality traits, or sex differences. Are you curious why politics and religion lead to so many bitter debates around the Thanksgiving dinner table -- even among relatives who get along in every other domain? Or why so many single people put 'No Trump supporters ' or 'No Libtards ' on the dating profiles -- when politics plays such a small role in day-to-day relationships? Or why Gen Z college students want to censor ideas they think are evil -- when they're supposed to be exposing themselves to diverse perspectives? Virtue signaling is one of those concepts that's easy to understand, but that most people don't bother to face -- because we're all doing it all the time, and acknowledging our own virtue signaling makes us feel embarrassed and hypocritical.Let's face the reality of virtue signaling. This book offers a scientifically grounded, practical, non-partisan set of insights so you understand your own ideological passions, your relationships, and your society much more easily. If you don't understand your own virtue signaling, then your ideologies and signaling habits, not your conscious mind, are running your life. If you don't understand other people's virtue signaling, then it's hard to take their point of view and to find common ground with them. If you don't understanding virtue signaling in the political realm, it's hard to convince other citizens to support your causes, policies, and candidates.This book collects seven essays written from 1996 through 2018. They're all focused around the evolutionary psychology of politics, ethics, and language. It includes a new preface, new introductions that give the backstory to each essay, and a new list of further readings (including about 100 books by other people). The book is about 32,000 words, or about 85-130 pages depending on your reader format. The author, Geoffrey Miller, is a tenured evolutionary psychology professor at University of New Mexico. He's been writing and teaching about the origins and functions of moral virtues for decades. His previous books include The Mating Mind, Spent, Mating Intelligence, and What Women Want. He got his B.A. from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from Stanford University. He's also worked at NYU Stern Business School, UCLA, University College London, and the London School of Economics. He has over 110 publications about sexual selection, mate choice, signaling theory, fitness indicators, consumer behavior, marketing, intelligence, creativity, language, art, music, humor, emotions, personality, psychopathology, and behavior genetics. He has also given 200 talks in 16 countries, and his research has been featured in Nature, Science, The New York Times, The Washington Post, New Scientist, and The Economist, on NPR and BBC radio, and in documentaries on CNN, PBS, Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel, and BBC.

The Origins of Christian Morality

Wayne A. Meeks examines the surviving documents from Christianity's beginnings (some of which became the New Testament) and shows that they are largely concerned with the way converts to the movement should behave.

The Origins of Christian Morality

Author: Wayne A. Meeks

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300065138

Page: 275

View: 838

By the time Christianity became a political and cultural force in the Roman Empire, it had come to embody a new moral vision. This wise and eloquent book describes the formative years--from the crucifixion of Jesus to the end of the second century of the common era--when Christian beliefs and practices shaped their unique moral order. Wayne A. Meeks examines the surviving documents from Christianity's beginnings (some of which became the New Testament) and shows that they are largely concerned with the way converts to the movement should behave. Meeks finds that for these Christians, the formation of morals means the formation of community; the documents are addressed not to individuals but to groups, and they have among their primary aims the maintenance and growth of these groups. Meeks paints a picture of the process of socialization that produced the early forms of Christian morality, discussing many factors that made the Christians feel that they were a single and "chosen" people. He describes, for example, the impact of conversion; the rapid spread of Christian household cult-associations in the cities of the Roman Empire; the language of Christian moral discourse as revealed in letters, testaments, and "moral stories"; the rituals, meetings, and institutionalization of charity; the Christians' feelings about celibacy, sex, and gender roles; and their sense of the end-time and final judgment. In each of these areas Meeks seeks to determine what is distinctive about the Christian viewpoint and what is similar to the moral components of Greco-Roman or Jewish thought.

Viral

In this uniquely insightful book, a scientist and a writer join forces to try to get to the bottom of how a virus whose closest relations live in bats in subtropical southern China somehow managed to begin spreading among people more than 1 ...

Viral

Author: Matt Ridley

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 0063139146

Page: 384

View: 805

A new virus descended on the human species in 2019 wreaking unprecedented havoc. Finding out where it came from and how it first jumped into people is an urgent priority, but early expectations that this would prove an easy question to answer have been dashed. Nearly two years into the pandemic, the crucial mystery of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 is not only unresolved but has deepened. In this uniquely insightful book, a scientist and a writer join forces to try to get to the bottom of how a virus whose closest relations live in bats in subtropical southern China somehow managed to begin spreading among people more than 1,500 kilometres away in the city of Wuhan. They grapple with the baffling fact that the virus left none of the expected traces that such outbreaks usually create: no infected market animals or wildlife, no chains of early cases in travellers to the city, no smouldering epidemic in a rural area, no rapid adaptation of the virus to its new host—human beings. To try to solve this pressing mystery, Viral delves deep into the events of 2019 leading up to 2021, the details of what went on in animal markets and virology laboratories, the records and data hidden from sight within archived Chinese theses and websites, and the clues that can be coaxed from the very text of the virus’s own genetic code. The result is a gripping detective story that takes the reader deeper and deeper into a metaphorical cave of mystery. One by one the authors explore promising tunnels only to show that they are blind alleys, until, miles beneath the surface, they find themselves tantalisingly close to a shaft that leads to the light.

The Origins of War

More important for understanding the origins of war, however, is Aquinas's theory of the vices and virtues, or dispositions to do evil or good, respectively ...

The Origins of War

Author: Matthew A. Shadle

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 158901751X

Page: 256

View: 441

Debate rages within the Catholic Church about the ethics of war and peace, but the simple question of why wars begin is too often neglected. Catholics’ assumptions about the causes of conflict are almost always drawn uncritically from international relations theory—a field dominated by liberalism, realism, and Marxism—which is not always consistent with Catholic theology. In The Origins of War, Matthew A. Shadle examines several sources to better understand why war happens. His retrieval of biblical literature and the teachings of figures from church tradition sets the course for the book. Shadle then explores the growing awareness of historical consciousness within the Catholic tradition—the way beliefs and actions are shaped by time, place, and culture. He examines the work of contemporary Catholic thinkers like Pope John Paul II, Jacques Maritain, John Courtney Murray, Dorothy Day, Brian Hehir, and George Weigel. In the constructive part of the book, Shadle analyzes the movement within international relations theory known as constructivism—which proposes that war is largely governed by a set of socially constructed and cultural influences. Constructivism, Shadle claims, presents a way of interpreting international politics that is highly amenable to a Catholic worldview and can provide a new direction for the Christian vocation of peacemaking.

The Origins of Courtliness

Selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Book Argues that the origins of courtliness lie in the German courts, their courtier class, and the education for court service in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

The Origins of Courtliness

Author: C. Stephen Jaeger

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812200898

Page: 340

View: 265

Selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Book Argues that the origins of courtliness lie in the German courts, their courtier class, and the education for court service in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

World Authors 1995 2000

Ridley's next book , The Origins of Virtue : Human Instincts and the Evolution of
Cooperation , is a continuation of Ridley's interest in applying the findings of
biological science to questions of human motivation and behavior . In The Origins
of ...

World Authors  1995 2000

Author: Mari Rich

Publisher: Hw Wilson Company

ISBN:

Page: 872

View: 692

Presents profiles of contemporary novelists, playwrights, essayists, historians, and poets from around the world.

The Structurist

THE ORIGINS OF VIRTUE : HUMAN INSTINCTS AND THE EVOLUTION OF
COOPERATION Matt Ridley New York : Penguin U.S.A. , Viking Press , 1997 ;
295 pp . Forthcoming Issue . . Our appreciation of the crane grows. Singer closes
his ...

The Structurist

Author: Eli Bornstein

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 349

Genome The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters

By picking one newly discovered gene from each of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, and telling its story, Matt Ridley recounts the history of our species and its ancestors from the dawn of life to the brink of future medicine.

Genome  The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters

Author: Matt Ridley

Publisher: HarperCollins UK

ISBN: 0007381840

Page: 352

View: 153

The most important investigation of genetic science since The Selfish Gene, from the author of the critically acclaimed and best-selling The Red Queen and The Origins of Virtue.

Conscience

How do we determine right from wrong? Conscience illuminates the answer through science and philosophy.

Conscience

Author: Patricia Churchland

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781324000891

Page: 272

View: 558

How do we determine right from wrong? Conscience illuminates the answer through science and philosophy.

Human Excellence

Putman's (philosophy, U. of Wisconsin at Fox Valley) mouthpieces explore the origins of virtue ethics, the challenge of relativism as applied to virtue, the relationship of virtue to ethical egoism and utilitarianism, rights theories, the ...

Human Excellence

Author: Daniel A. Putman

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 9780761811626

Page: 133

View: 756

Human Excellence introduces the basic ideas of virtue theory, the branch of ethics that analyzes character. The author accomplishes this by systematically and carefully exploring the role of character in ethics through a series of dialogues. He begins by contrasting virtue ethics with other ethical views such as egoism, utilitarianism, and rights theories. Then he explores issues including the nature of courage, the problem of healthy versus unhealthy self-love, character and parenting techniques, the nature of friendship, and the relationship of virtue to the current debate on the 'ethics of care.' The advantage of the author's approach is its practicality, making the material not only understandable, but applicable to exploring the self and systems in place in the world.

Books about Evolution

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Books about Evolution

Author: Source Wikipedia

Publisher: University-Press.org

ISBN: 9781230598048

Page: 70

View: 762

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Commentary (books not included). Pages: 68. Chapters: On the Origin of Species, The Selfish Gene, The Blind Watchmaker, The Beak of the Finch, The Extended Phenotype, Dawkins vs. Gould, The Origin of Birds, The Descent of Man, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, River Out of Eden, Man After Man: An Anthropology of the Future, The Future Is Wild, The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, After Man: A Zoology of the Future, Sperm Wars, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Adaptation and Natural Selection, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Wonderful Life, Only A Theory, Tempo and Mode in Evolution, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, The Major Transitions in Evolution, The Blood of the Nation, Variation and Evolution in Plants, Future Evolution, Evolution and the Theory of Games, The Origins of Virtue, Moral Minds, Climbing Mount Improbable, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature, Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life, Evolution: The Modern Synthesis, Facts and Arguments for Darwin, The Theory of Evolution, Systematics and the Origin of Species, Genetics and the Origin of Species, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, Darwinian Fairytales, Melanism: Evolution in Action, The Causes of Evolution, The New Dinosaurs: An Alternative Evolution, Group Selection, The Evolution of Melanism, Flowering Plants: Evolution Above the Species Level.