The Making of the Modern Refugee

Offers a comprehensive history of global population displacement in the twentieth century, and provides a new analytic approach to the subject by exploring its causes, consequences, and meanings

The Making of the Modern Refugee

Author: Peter Gatrell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199674167

Page: 312

View: 405

Offers a comprehensive history of global population displacement in the twentieth century, and provides a new analytic approach to the subject by exploring its causes, consequences, and meanings

The Unsettling of Europe

This is a landmark book on a subject that, decade by decade, will always haunt Europe. 'Peter Gatrell has produced a tour de force .

The Unsettling of Europe

Author: Peter Gatrell

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141984805

Page: 400

View: 582

Migrants have stood at the heart of modern Europe's experience, whether trying to escape danger, to find a better life or as a result of deliberate policy, whether moving from the countryside to the city, or between countries, or from outside the continent altogether. Peter Gatrell's powerful new book is the first to bring these stories together into one place. He creates a compelling narrative bracketed by two nightmarish periods: the great convulsions following the fall of the Third Reich and the mass attempts in the 2010s by migrants to cross the Mediterranean into Europe. The Unsettling of Europe is a new history of the continent, charting the ever-changing arguments about the desirability or otherwise of migrants and their central role in Europe's post-1945 prosperity. Gatrell is as fascinating on the giant movements of millions (such as the epic waves of German migration) to that of much smaller groups, such as the Karelians, Armenians, Moluccans or Ugandan Asians. Above all he has written a book that makes the reader deeply aware of the many extraordinary journeys taken by countless individuals in pursuit of work, safety and dignity, all the time. This is a landmark book on a subject that, decade by decade, will always haunt Europe.

The Making of the Modern Refugee

... in The Making of the Modern Refugee. We also need to consider how the modern refugee came to be construed as a 'problem' amenable to a 'solution'.

The Making of the Modern Refugee

Author: Peter Gatrell

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191655694

Page: 312

View: 655

The Making of the Modern Refugee is a comprehensive history of global population displacement in the twentieth century. It takes a new approach to the subject, exploring its causes, consequences, and meanings. History, the author shows, provides important clues to understanding how the idea of refugees as a 'problem' embedded itself in the minds of policy-makers and the public, and poses a series of fundamental questions about the nature of enforced migration and how it has shaped society throughout the twentieth century across a broad geographical area - from Europe and the Middle East to South Asia, South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Wars, revolutions, and state formation are invoked as the main causal explanations of displacement, and are considered alongside the emergence of a twentieth-century refugee regime linking governmental practices, professional expertise, and humanitarian relief efforts. This new study rests upon scholarship from several disciplines and draws extensively upon oral testimony, eye-witness accounts, and film, as well as unpublished source material in the archives of governments, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations. The Making of the Modern Refugee explores the significance that refugees attached to the places they left behind, to their journeys, and to their destinations - in short, how refugees helped to interpret and fashion their own history.

Wuhan 1938

The book features photographs taken at that time, including a selection by renowned photojournalist Robert Capa, who was among the prominent writers and artists who came to witness events in Wuhan during its short, vibrant reign as China's ...

Wuhan  1938

Author: Stephen R. MacKinnon

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520254457

Page: 182

View: 360

During 1938, a flood of Chinese refugees displaced by the Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945) converged on the central Yangzi valley tricity complex of Wuhan. This text tells the full story of Wuhan's defense and fall, and how the siege's aftermath led to new directions in the history of modern Chinese culture society, and politis.

The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia

In this remarkable study based on more than two years of ethnographic and archival research, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar argues that the combined interventions of the two postcolonial states were enormously important in shaping these ...

The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia

Author: Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231511019

Page: 304

View: 538

Nation-states often shape the boundaries of historical enquiry, and thus silence the very histories that have sutured nations to territorial states. "India" and "Pakistan" were drawn onto maps in the midst of Partition's genocidal violence and one of the largest displacements of people in the twentieth century. Yet this historical specificity of decolonization on the very making of a nationalized cartography of modern South Asia has largely gone unexamined. In this remarkable study based on more than two years of ethnographic and archival research, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar argues that the combined interventions of the two postcolonial states were enormously important in shaping these massive displacements. She examines the long, contentious, and ambivalent process of drawing political boundaries and making distinct nation-states in the midst of this historic chaos. Zamindar crosses political and conceptual boundaries to bring together oral histories with north Indian Muslim families divided between the two cities of Delhi and Karachi with extensive archival research in previously unexamined Urdu newspapers and government records of India and Pakistan. She juxtaposes the experiences of ordinary people against the bureaucratic interventions of both postcolonial states to manage and control refugees and administer refugee property. As a result, she reveals the surprising history of the making of the western Indo-Pak border, one of the most highly surveillanced in the world, which came to be instituted in response to this refugee crisis, in order to construct national difference where it was the most blurred. In particular, Zamindar examines the "Muslim question" at the heart of Partition. From the margins and silences of national histories, she draws out the resistance, bewilderment, and marginalization of north Indian Muslims as they came to be pushed out and divided by both emergent nation-states. It is here that Zamindar asks us to stretch our understanding of "Partition violence" to include this long, and in some sense ongoing, bureaucratic violence of postcolonial nationhood, and to place Partition at the heart of a twentieth century of border-making and nation-state formation.

States of Separation

This is an original and clearly written work of important historical scholarship.

States of Separation

Author: Laura Robson

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520292154

Page: 264

View: 671

"In the interwar Eastern Mediterranean, European colonial modes of establishing land claims and controlling populations converged with a recent Ottoman past featuring desperate and violent efforts at nationalization and an increasingly empowered Zionist settler colonialism. States of Separation explores how this confluence produced a series of internationally supported plans to move "minority" communities in, around, and out of the newly constituted states of Iraq, Syria, and Palestine under the aegis of the League of Nations - a massive demographic experiment that carried lasting political and social consequences for the twentieth century Middle East and the international order."--Provided by publisher.

Long Partition and the Making of Modern

Zamindar'S Ability To Weave Into A Single Narrative The National And The Local, The Administrative And The Personal, The Everyday And The Epochal, Is Truly Remarkable. This Is A Path Breaking Contribution To Modern South Asian Studies.

Long Partition and the Making of Modern

Author: Vazira Fazila

Publisher: Penguin Books India

ISBN: 9780670082056

Page: 288

View: 749

In This Remarkable Study Based On More Than Two Years Of Ethnographic And Archival Research, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar Argues That The Combined Interventions Of The Two Postcolonial States Were Enormously Important In Shaping These Massive Displacements. She Examines The Long, Contentious, And Ambivalent Process Of Drawing Political Boundaries And Making Distinct Nation-States In The Midst Of This Historic Chaos. Zamindar Crosses Political And Conceptual Boundaries To Bring Together Oral Histories With North Indian Muslim Families Divided Between The Two Cities Of Delhi And Karachi With Extensive Archival Research In Previously Unexamined Urdu Newspapers And Government Records Of India And Pakistan. She Juxtaposes The Experiences Of Ordinary People Against The Bureaucratic Interventions Of Both Postcolonial States To Manage And Control Refugees And Administer Refugee Property. As A Result, She Reveals The Surprising History Of The Making Of The Western Indo-Pak Border, One Of The Most Highly Surveillanced In The World, Which Came To Be Instituted In Response To This Refugee Crisis, In Order To Construct National Difference Where It Was The Most Blurred. In Particular, Zamindar Examines The Muslim Question At The Heart Of Partition. From The Margins And Silences Of National Histories, She Draws Out The Resistance, Bewilderment, And Marginalization Of North Indian Muslims As They Came To Be Pushed Out And Divided By Both Emergent Nation-States. It Is Here That Zamindar Asks Us To Stretch Our Understanding Of Partition Violence To Include This Long, And In Some Sense Ongoing, Bureaucratic Violence Of Postcolonial Nationhood, And To Place Partition At The Heart Of A Twentieth Century Of Border-Making And Nation-State Formation. A Product Of Outstanding Historical-Ethnographic Research, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar'S Book Tells Like No One Has Done Before The Maddeningly Tangled Story Of How, In The Years After The Partition Of 1947, India And Pakistan Actually Came To Separate Their Territories, Properties, And Peoples Into Two Sovereign States. Zamindar'S Ability To Weave Into A Single Narrative The National And The Local, The Administrative And The Personal, The Everyday And The Epochal, Is Truly Remarkable. This Is A Path Breaking Contribution To Modern South Asian Studies. Partha Chatterjee, Author Of The Politics Of The Governed: Reflections On Popular Politics In Most Of The World A Deeply Moving Account Of The Contingent Category Of The No-Questions-Asked Natural Citizen Within The Indian And Pakistani Nation-States, At Birth And In Their Long, Postnatal Condition. The Hurriedly Fixed National Boundaries Here Both Necessitate And Entice, Contain And Penalize Crossings. Zamindar Richly Documents How For Some Minority Groups Travel, Kinship Ties, And A National Longing Have To Be Continually Bared To Lay Claim To Citizenship Within A Multireligious Dispensation. An Unsettling Work That Breaks Through The Chalk Circles Circumscribing The Retellings Of Our Separate And National Pasts. Shahid Amin, Author Of Writing Alternative Histories: A View From India A Remarkable Exercise Of Ethno-History From Below. In Addition To Official Sources, Zamindar Has Collected Testimonies In Archives And Interviewed Survivors Of Partition To Offer An Original And Significant Chronicle Of The Nation-Making Process In Both India And Pakistan. Christophe Jaffrelot, Author Of The Hindu Nationalist Movement And Indian Politics, 1925 To The 1990S This Is A Significant And Path-Breaking Book And Is Likely To Become The Standard Study Of The Subject. It Will Be Cited Authoritatively Or Be Argued With For Some Time To Come. Aamir Mufti, Author Of Enlightenment In The Colony: The Jewish Question And The Crisis Of Postcolonial Culture

Refugees in Europe 1919 1959

Gatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee, 283. Peter Gatrell, Free World? The Campaign to Save the World's Refugees, 1956-1963 (Cambridge: Cambridge ...

Refugees in Europe  1919 1959

Author: Matthew Frank

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 147258564X

Page: 272

View: 375

Refugees in Europe, 1919-1959 offers a new history of Europe's mid-20th century as seen through its recurrent refugee crises. By bringing together in one volume recent research on a range of different contexts of groups of refugees and refugee policy, it sheds light on the common assumptions that underpinned the history of refugees throughout the period under review. The essays foreground the period between the end of the First World War, which inaugurated a series of new international structures to deal with displaced populations, and the late 1950s, when Europe's home-grown refugee problems had supposedly been 'solved' and attention shifted from the identification of an exclusively European refugee problem to a global one. Borrowing from E. H. Carr's The Twenty Years' Crisis, first published in 1939, the editors of this volume test the idea that the two post-war eras could be represented as a single crisis of a European-dominated international order of nation states in the face of successive refugee crises which were both the direct consequence of that system and a challenge to it. Each of the chapters reflects on the utility and limitations of this notion of a 'forty years' crisis' for understanding the development of specific national and international responses to refugees in the mid-20th century. Contributors to the volume also provide alternative readings of the history of an international refugee regime, in which the non-European and colonial world are assigned a central role in the narrative.

Syria

"The dispossession and forced migration of nearly 50 per cent of Syria's population has produced the greatest refugee crisis since World War II. This new book places the current displacement within the context of the widespread migrations ...

Syria

Author: Dawn Chatty

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190876069

Page: 224

View: 464

The dispossession and forced migration of nearly 50 per cent of Syria's population has produced the greatest refugee crisis since World War II. This new book places the current displacement within the context of the widespread migrations that have indelibly marked the region throughout the last 150 years. Syria itself has harbored millions from its neighboring lands, and Syrian society has been shaped by these diasporas. Dawn Chatty explores how modern Syria came to be a refuge state, focusing first on the major forced migrations into Syria of Circassians, Armenians, Kurds, Palestinians, and Iraqis. Drawing heavily on individual narratives and stories of integration, adaptation, and compromise, she shows that a local cosmopolitanism came to be seen as intrinsic to Syrian society. She examines the current outflow of people from Syria to neighboring states as individuals and families seek survival with dignity, arguing that though the future remains uncertain, the resilience and strength of Syrian society both displaced internally within Syria and externally across borders bodes well for successful return and reintegration. If there is any hope to be found in the Syrian civil war, it is in this history.

Imperial Refuge

Imperial Refuge revisits late Ottoman history through the lens of migration, holding the resettlement of Muslim refugees as critical to the making of the modern Balkans, Turkey, and the Levant.

Imperial Refuge

Author: Vladimir Hamed-Troyansky

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 540

Imperial Refuge revisits late Ottoman history through the lens of migration, holding the resettlement of Muslim refugees as critical to the making of the modern Balkans, Turkey, and the Levant. In the half-century before World War I, about one million Muslims from Russia's North Caucasus region arrived in the Ottoman Empire. Most of them came as refugees fleeing war and persecution. This dissertation investigates the political economy of refugee resettlement in the Ottoman provinces of Danube, Sivas, and Damascus and traces refugee networks throughout the empire and beyond. The ability of refugees to tap into local economies underpinned Ottoman regional and imperial stability. State support, whether in financial aid, legal infrastructure, or transportation, was paramount to the economic success of agricultural refugee settlements. In the northern Balkans, for example, insufficient state subsidies and scarcity of land for refugees contributed to the outbreak of Muslim-Christian clashes and then to the 1877-78 Russo-Ottoman War, which ultimately ejected the Ottomans from much of the Balkans. In central Anatolia, a lack of state investment hindered the development of refugee villages, which led to economic stagnation of the region. In contrast, in the Levant, Circassian and Chechen refugees took advantage of the state-built Hejaz Railway and land reforms to create booming settlements. The refugees founded three of the four largest cities in modern Jordan, including the capital city of Amman. This bottom-up history of refugee migration and resettlement is based on archival materials from Turkey, Jordan, Bulgaria, Russia, Georgia, and the United Kingdom, including previously unknown private letters and refugee petitions.

Refugee Imaginaries

Gatrell argues convincingly that the making of the modern refugee, through war, revolution and state building, was itself absolutely integral to the ...

Refugee Imaginaries

Author: Cox Emma Cox

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 1474443214

Page: 544

View: 423

Charts new directions for interdisciplinary research on refugee writing and representationPlaces refugee imaginaries at the centre of interdisciplinary exchange, demonstrating the vital new perspectives on refugee experience available in humanities researchBrings together leading research in literary, performance, art and film studies, digital and new media, postcolonialism and critical race theory, transnational and comparative cultural studies, history, anthropology, philosophy, human geography and cultural politicsThe refugee has emerged as one of the key figures of the twenty-first-century. This book explores how refugees imagine the world and how the world imagines them. It demonstrates the ways in which refugees have been written into being by international law, governmental and non-governmental bodies and the media, and foregrounds the role of the arts and humanities in imagining, historicising and protesting the experiences of forced migration and statelessness. Including thirty-two newly written chapters on representations by and of refugees from leading researchers in the field, Refugee Imaginaries establishes the case for placing the study of the refugee at the centre of contemporary critical enquiry.

Migration and the Crisis of the Modern Nation State

Gatrell, Peter, The making of the modern refugee (Oxford: Oxford University ... “Refugees – What's wrong with History”, Journal of Refugee Studies (2016); ...

Migration and the Crisis of the Modern Nation State

Author: Frank Jacob

Publisher: Vernon Press

ISBN: 1622733630

Page: 284

View: 630

The anthology explores the interrelationship between migration and a supposedly existent crisis of the modern nation state. The argument of such a crisis is mainly used by the New Right to stimulate nationalist feelings and provoke hate and aggression. We, in contrast to this perception, argue that from a historical and current perspective, migration is not endangering the nation state, but rather changing the idea of a nation itself by redefining it. In historical as well as current case studies, the authors determine the political dangers of right wing demagogues, while emphasizing the chances, immigration is offering the progress of the nation state. While it will be discussed how nationalism is impacting on the perception of migration, we also want to emphasize how it is perceived by the people in the specific regions, which are either confronted with migration or those which are not. The authors for the volume come from different fields, namely history and political sciences, and are consequently able to offer the reader a broad insight into the historical roots and the current consequences nationalism had or has on the perception and the local as well as global policies towards migration. The analysis of particular immigrant groups (e.g. North Koreans in post-war Korea, South Asians in the Emirates, Middle Eastern refugees in Europe, Hispanics in the United States) as well as a close reading of crisis related media (newspapers and other media in Europe and the US) will, all in all, establish a broad perspective, due to which the reader will be able to compare and connect the national events to a larger global picture.

The Making of Modern Tibet

This book attempts to reach beyond the polemics by considering the various historical arguments, using archival material from several nations and drawing conclusions focused on available documents.

The Making of Modern Tibet

Author: A.Tom Grunfeld

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317455835

Page: 370

View: 451

An account of Tibet and the Tibetan people that emphasises the political history of the 20th century. This book attempts to reach beyond the polemics by considering the various historical arguments, using archival material from several nations and drawing conclusions focused on available documents.

REFUGEE CRISIS IN INTERNATIONAL POLICY VOLUME I LEGAL AND SOCIAL STATUSES OF REFUGEES

49 For the population displacement after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, seeGatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee, pp. 259-261.

REFUGEE CRISIS IN INTERNATIONAL POLICY   VOLUME I   LEGAL AND SOCIAL STATUSES OF REFUGEES

Author: Hasret ÇOMAK

Publisher: Transnational Press London

ISBN: 1801350116

Page: 271

View: 900

This first volume offers comprehensive analyses on a variety of topics ranging from legal to social statute of the refugees. The authors and their contributions are as follows: Çağla Arslan Bozkuş “Legal Status of Refugees”; Özkan Gönül and Yunus Karaağaç “Social Rights of Refugees”, Hasan Acar and Serhat Bulut “The Political Rights of Refugees”; Gülayşe Ülgen Türedi “Refugees and Human Rights”; Emine Kılıçaslan “Refugee and Cultural Rights of Refugees in the Context of Political Communication”; Cenap Çakmak Clarifying the Legal Status: Distinctions between Refugees, Asylum Seekers and (Irregular) Migrants”; Mehlika Özlem Ultan “Conceptual Framework About Migration”; Akın Kiren “The History of Refugee Movements: A Brief Overview”; Hakan Sezgin Erkan “Development Assistance and Refugee Crisis”; Merve Mamacı “Refugee Well-Being in Work Life”; Saadat Demirci “Integration of Refugees into the Society”; Güneş Koç “Identity Construction of Syrian in their Narratives”; Asena Boztaş “Refugees, Integration and Political-Demographic Concerns in Turkey and the World”; Cemal Kakışım and Ozan Selçuk “Integration Policies of the European Union and Turkey towards Refugees”; and Hekma Wali “The Local Integration of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey”.

Refugees and the Promise of Asylum in Postwar France 1945 1995

Gatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee, pp. 111–112. Kecskés, 'Les composantes d'une action humanitaire,' p. 130; Henry, 'Les Réfugiés Hongrois,' pp.

Refugees and the Promise of Asylum in Postwar France  1945   1995

Author: Greg Burgess

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 1137440279

Page: 296

View: 365

This book recounts France’s responses to refugees from the liberation of Paris in 1944 to the end of the civil wars in the former Yugoslavia in 1995. It questions whether France fulfilled the promise of asylum for those persecuted for the ‘cause of liberty’ made in its Constitution of 1946. Post-war development and the demand for immigrant workers were favourable to refugees from the Communist east, from Franco’s Spain, from Hungary after insurrection of 1956, and later from Latin America and Indochina. Asylum developed nationally in conjunction with international developments, the interventions of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and the adoption of the 1951 Refugee Convention. Economic ruptures in the 1970s, however, and the appearance of refugees from Asia and Africa, led to the assertion of national priorities and brought about a sense of crisis, and questions about whether France could continue to fulfil its promise.

Unsettled

Peter Gatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee (Oxford, 2013), p. 296. Bülent Diken and Carsten Bagge Laustsen, The Culture of Exception: Sociology Facing ...

Unsettled

Author: Jordanna Bailkin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192545256

Page: 304

View: 918

Today, no one really thinks of Britain as a land of camps. Camps seem to happen 'elsewhere', from Greece, to Palestine, to the global South. Yet over the course of the twentieth century, dozens of British refugee camps housed hundreds of thousands of Belgians, Jews, Basques, Poles, Hungarians, Anglo-Egyptians, Ugandan Asians, and Vietnamese. Refugee camps in Britain were never only for refugees. Refugees shared a space with Britons who had been displaced by war and poverty, as well as thousands of civil servants and a fractious mix of volunteers. Unsettled: Refugee Camps and the Making of Multicultural Britain explores how these camps have shaped today's multicultural Britain. They generated unique intimacies and frictions, illuminating the closeness of individuals that have traditionally been kept separate — 'citizens' and 'migrants', but also refugee populations from diverse countries and conflicts. As the world's refugee crisis once again brings to Europe the challenges of mass encampment, Unsettled offers warnings from a liberal democracy's recent past. Through lively anecdotes from interviews with former camp residents and workers, Unsettled conveys the vivid, everyday history of refugee camps, which witnessed births and deaths, love affairs and violent conflicts, strikes and protests, comedy and tragedy. Their story — like that of today's refugee crisis — is one of complicated intentions that played out in unpredictable ways. The aim of this book is not to redeem camps — nor, indeed, to condemn them. It is to refuse to ignore them. Unsettled speaks to all who are interested in the plight of the encamped, and the global uses of encampment in our present world.

Freilegungen

The 20th century has often been labeled the »century of refugees« in European history ... As 1 Peter Gatrell: The Making of the Modern Refugee, Oxford 2013.

Freilegungen

Author: Henning Borggräfe

Publisher: Wallstein Verlag

ISBN: 3835340190

Page: 263

View: 527

Digitale Anwendungen ermöglichen neue Zugänge zur Topographie der nationalsozialistischen Verbrechen. Das Jahrbuch 2016 des International Tracing Service (ITS) legt den Fokus auf verschiedene räumliche Aspekte des Holocaust und anderer nationalsozialistischer Massenverbrechen. Das wachsende Forschungsinteresse an der Rekonstruktion von Verfolgungswegen sowie von Orten und Räumen des Terrors steht im Zusammenhang mit neuen digitalen Methoden und Darstellungsmöglichkeiten. Zugleich ist es mit der verstärkten Hinwendung zu einer Erfahrungsgeschichte der NS-Verfolgten verbunden. Das Archiv des ITS verwahrt eine der weltweit größten Sammlungen zur Geschichte der NS-Verbrechen. Aufgrund seiner einzigartigen Struktur birgt es für diese Zugänge große Forschungspotentiale, zu deren Freilegung das Jahrbuch beitragen soll.

Un Settling Middle Eastern Refugees

The Making of the Modern Refugee. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gelvin, James L. 2015. The Modern Middle East: A History. 4th edition.

Un Settling Middle Eastern Refugees

Author: Marcia C. Inhorn

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 180073056X

Page: 316

View: 265

Since the Iraq war, the Middle East has been in continuous upheaval, resulting in the displacement of millions of people. Arriving from Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine, and Syria in other parts of the world, the refugees show remarkable resilience and creativity amidst profound adversity. Through careful ethnography, this book vividly illustrates how refugees navigate regimes of exclusion, including cumbersome bureaucracies, financial insecurities, medical challenges, vilifying stereotypes, and threats of violence. The collection bears witness to their struggles, while also highlighting their aspirations for safety, settlement, and social inclusion in their host societies and new homes.

Britannia s Embrace

Marrus, The Unwanted; Skran, Refugees in Inter-war Europe: The Emergence of a Regime (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995); Gatrell, The Making of the Modern ...

Britannia s Embrace

Author: Caroline Shaw

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0190200987

Page: 313

View: 544

On the eve of the American Revolution, the refugee was, according to British tradition, a Protestant who sought shelter from continental persecution. By the turn of the twentieth century, however, British refuge would be celebrated internationally as being open to all persecuted foreigners. Britain had become a haven for fugitives as diverse as Karl Marx and Louis Napoleon, Simón Bolívar and Frederick Douglass. How and why did the refugee category expand? How, in a period when no law forbade foreigners entry to Britain, did the refugee emerge as a category for humanitarian and political action? Why did the plight of these particular foreigners become such a characteristically British concern? Current understandings about the origins of refuge have focused on the period after 1914. Britannia's Embrace offers the first historical analysis of the origins of this modern humanitarian norm in the long nineteenth century. At a time when Britons were reshaping their own political culture, this charitable endeavor became constitutive of what it meant to be liberal on the global stage. Like British anti-slavery, its sister movement, campaigning on behalf of foreign refugees seemed to give purpose to the growing empire and the resources of empire gave it greater strength. By the dawn of the twentieth century, British efforts on behalf of persecuted foreigners declined precipitously, but its legacies in law and in modern humanitarian politics would be long-lasting. In telling this story, Britannia's Embrace puts refugee relief front and center in histories of human rights and international law and of studies of Britain in the world. In so doing, it describes the dynamic relationship between law, resources, and moral storytelling that remains critical to humanitarianism today.

Journeys from the Abyss

51 Gatrell, The Making of the Modern Refugee. In a curious mirror image of the historical profession's amnesia, 11 Introduction.

Journeys from the Abyss

Author: Tony Kushner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1786940620

Page: 368

View: 481

This book explores Jewish refugee movements before, during and after the Holocaust and to place them in a longer history of forced migration from the 1880s to the present. It does not deny that there were particular issues facing the Jews escaping from Nazism, but in this enlightening study the author emphasises that there are longer term trends which shed light on responses to and the experiences of these refugees and other forced migrants. Focusing on women, children, and 'illegal' boat migrants, the author considers not only British spheres of influence, but also Europe, the Middle East, the Americas, South Asia, Australasia. The approach adopted is historical but incorporates insights from many different disciplines including geography, anthropology, cultural and literary studies and politics. State as well as popular responses are integrated and the voices of the refugees themselves are highlighted throughout. Films, novels, museums and memorials are used alongside more traditional sources, allowing exploration of history and memory. And whilst the importance of comparison underpins this book, it also provides a detailed history of many neglected refugee movements or aspects within them such as gender and childhood. Written in a lively and committed style, the book is accessible to both a general as well as a specialist audience, and will be of interest to those interested in the Holocaust, migration and generally in the growing crisis of ordinary people forced to move.