Edna Ullmann-Margalit provides an original account of the emergence of norms.
Author: Edna Ullmann-Margalit
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Edna Ullmann-Margalit provides an original account of the emergence of norms. Her main thesis is that certain types of norms are possible solutions to problems posed by certain types of social interaction situations. The problems are such that they inhere in the structure (in the game-theoretical sense of structure) of the situations concerned. Three types of paradigmatic situations are dealt with. They are referred to as Prisoners' Dilemma-type situations; co-ordination situations; and inequality (or partiality) situations. Each of them, it is claimed, poses a basic difficulty, to some or all of the individuals involved in them. Three types of norms, respectively, are offered as solutions to these situational problems. It is shown how, and in what sense, the adoption of these norms of social behaviour can indeed resolve the specified problems.
In der Soziologie finden Rational-Choice (RC)-Erklärungen zunehmende Verbreitung. Sie sollen einerseits zu einer Lösung allgemeiner theoretischer Kernprobleme (Erklärung von sozialer Ordnung, Kooperation und sozialen Normen) beitragen.
Author: Andreas Diekmann
In der Soziologie finden Rational-Choice (RC)-Erklärungen zunehmende Verbreitung. Sie sollen einerseits zu einer Lösung allgemeiner theoretischer Kernprobleme (Erklärung von sozialer Ordnung, Kooperation und sozialen Normen) beitragen. Darüber hinaus dominiert die RC-Theorie mittlerweile zahlreiche Felder der empirischen Forschung. In diesem Band beschreiben namhafte Autoren die umfangreichen theoretischen und empirischen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. Ein Schwerpunkt der theoretischen Arbeiten sind Analysen sozialer Normen. Die empirischen Beiträge und Anwendungen behandeln ein breites Spektrum von Themen, u.a. aus der Soziologie des abweichenden Verhaltens, der politischen Soziologie und der Analyse des Terrorismus. Abgerundet werden die Aufsätze durch methodologische Überlegungen. Der Band liefert Studierenden und Forschern eine umfassende Orientierung über wichtige Entwicklungslinien dieses Forschungsprogramms.
The volume then turns to case studies on the birth and death of norms in a variety of contexts, from protest movements, to marriage, to mushroom collecting.
Author: Michael Hechter
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Social norms are rules that prescribe what people should and should not do given their social surroundings and circumstances. Norms instruct people to keep their promises, to drive on the right, or to abide by the golden rule. They are useful explanatory tools, employed to analyze phenomena as grand as international diplomacy and as mundane as the rules of the road. But our knowledge of norms is scattered across disciplines and research traditions, with no clear consensus on how the term should be used. Research on norms has focused on the content and the consequences of norms, without paying enough attention to their causes. Social Norms reaches across the disciplines of sociology, economics, game theory, and legal studies to provide a well-integrated theoretical and empirical account of how norms emerge, change, persist, or die out. Social Norms opens with a critical review of the many outstanding issues in the research on norms: When are norms simply devices to ease cooperation, and when do they carry intrinsic moral weight? Do norms evolve gradually over time or spring up spontaneously as circumstances change? The volume then turns to case studies on the birth and death of norms in a variety of contexts, from protest movements, to marriage, to mushroom collecting. The authors detail the concrete social processes, such as repeated interactions, social learning, threats and sanctions, that produce, sustain, and enforce norms. One case study explains how it can become normative for citizens to participate in political protests in times of social upheaval. Another case study examines how the norm of objectivity in American journalism emerged: Did it arise by consensus as the professional creed of the press corps, or was it imposed upon journalists by their employers? A third case study examines the emergence of the norm of national self-determination: has it diffused as an element of global culture, or was it imposed by the actions of powerful states? The book concludes with an examination of what we know of norm emergence, highlighting areas of agreement and points of contradiction between the disciplines. Norms may be useful in explaining other phenomena in society, but until we have a coherent theory of their origins we have not truly explained norms themselves. Social Norms moves us closer to a true understanding of this ubiquitous feature of social life.
malism can explain the emergence of norms such as sovereignty and equality of
states , uti possidetis , and political legalism . Moreover , if social practices are
associated with ordinary practice , imitation , and learning , then many of the
Author: Arie Marcelo Kacowicz
Publisher: University of Notre Dame Press
This book addresses problems and puzzles associated with identifying international norms and the influence of these norms on the behavior of different states in international relations in a regional context. Arie M. Kacowicz's research traces several international norms of peace and security and examines their impact in Latin America between 1881 and 2001. He offers an original synthesis of positivist and constructivist approaches and links international relations, international law, international ethics, and Latin American diplomatic history. Kacowicz's primary argument is that a body of international norms of peace and security can be considered an independent and dynamic factor that affects the quality of international society generally and also plays a significant role in regional contexts. In developing his argument, he analyzes the origin of international norms, the impact of norms on the domestic and foreign behavior of states, and the conditions under which regional norms affect the political behavior of states. The book contains eleven empirical case-studies of the ways that international norms have affected the actions of Latin American states, ranging from the neutralization of the Magellan Straits in 1881, to the recent incorporation of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil into the Tlatelolco regime of a nuclear-weapons-free-zone in 1994, and the nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil beginning in the late 1990s. These case-studies include stories of success through peaceful resolutions of conflict between states, of failure, and mixtures of both. Scholars and students of international relations and Latin America will find this book to be both a valuable analysis of international norms and a compelling diplomatic history.
The Factorial Survey and the Measurement of Norms ; SA11812 The Emergence
of Marriage Norms : An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective ; SA14013 The
Emergence of the Objectivity Norm in American Journalism ; SA13105 Enacting ...
Author: Leo P. Chall
CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.
This book traces the development of the Business & Human Rights (BHR) regime that has so far culminated with the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.
Author: Karin Buhmann
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
This book traces the development of the Business & Human Rights (BHR) regime that has so far culminated with the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. It first surveys the argumentation and negotiation strategies that led to agreement on key elements of the BHR regime despite a range conflicting interests across stakeholders from public, private and not-for-profit organisations. It then maps out pro-active regulatory strategies and public-private regulation for promoting responsible business conduct, offering insights for civil society, public regulators, business managers, academics and others. The book will assist engaged parties in structuring their arguments within negotiation processes with a view to enhancing their influence on change in business organisations in support of sustainability and new norms of conduct.
2 The Coleman Model : The Emergence and Effects of Norms The theories
elaborated in the previous section rest on assumptions of the general price
theoretical model and its extension by Becker ( 1976 ) . In this section an
additional line of ...
Author: Uwe Matzat
Publisher: Thesis Pub
Offers a theoretical empirical analysis of academic communication and internet discussion groups
Socioin Ad . PROBING THE CHARACTER OF NORMS : A FACTORIAL SURVEY
ANALYSIS OF THE NORMS OF ... norms is problematic , then the test of
propotask for social science ( Blake and Davis sitions about the emergence of
norms or ...
Includes sections "Book reviews" and "Periodical literature."
The fifteen case studies analyzed in this volume, which include field experiments in Africa, South America, New Guinea, Siberia and the United States, are available for free download on the Foundation’s website:www.russellsage.org.
Author: Jean Ensminger
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Questions about the origins of human cooperation have long puzzled and divided scientists. Social norms that foster fair-minded behavior, altruism and collective action undergird the foundations of large-scale human societies, but we know little about how these norms develop or spread, or why the intensity and breadth of human cooperation varies among different populations. What is the connection between social norms that encourage fair dealing and economic growth? How are these social norms related to the emergence of centralized institutions? Informed by a pioneering set of cross-cultural data, Experimenting with Social Norms advances our understanding of the evolution of human cooperation and the expansion of complex societies. Editors Jean Ensminger and Joseph Henrich present evidence from an exciting collaboration between anthropologists and economists. Using experimental economics games, researchers examined levels of fairness, cooperation, and norms for punishing those who violate expectations of equality across a diverse swath of societies, from hunter-gatherers in Tanzania to a small town in rural Missouri. These experiments tested individuals’ willingness to conduct mutually beneficial transactions with strangers that reap rewards only at the expense of taking a risk on the cooperation of others. The results show a robust relationship between exposure to market economies and social norms that benefit the group over narrow economic self-interest. Levels of fairness and generosity are generally higher among individuals in communities with more integrated markets. Religion also plays a powerful role. Individuals practicing either Islam or Christianity exhibited a stronger sense of fairness, possibly because religions with high moralizing deities, equipped with ample powers to reward and punish, encourage greater prosociality. The size of the settlement also had an impact. People in larger communities were more willing to punish unfairness compared to those in smaller societies. Taken together, the volume supports the hypothesis that social norms evolved over thousands of years to allow strangers in more complex and large settlements to coexist, trade and prosper. Innovative and ambitious, Experimenting with Social Norms synthesizes an unprecedented analysis of social behavior from an immense range of human societies. The fifteen case studies analyzed in this volume, which include field experiments in Africa, South America, New Guinea, Siberia and the United States, are available for free download on the Foundation’s website:www.russellsage.org.
This collection of essays assesses the origins of various rule-based systems, including, but not limited to, morality, rationality, and justice from the perspectives of both philosophy and psychology.
Author: Jerzy Stelmach
This collection of essays assesses the origins of various rule-based systems, including, but not limited to, morality, rationality, and justice from the perspectives of both philosophy and psychology. The reader will learn about diverse cognitive and neurocognitive phenomena that are responsible for the emergence of normative orders, such as imitation, time preferences, and the dual-processing mind. Furthermore, the essays include different philosophical insights into the genealogy of norms.
Philip Pettit has drawn together here a series of interconnected essays on three subjects to which he has made notable contributions. The first part of the book deals with the rule-following character of thought.
Author: Philip Pettit
Publisher: Clarendon Press
Philip Pettit has drawn together here a series of interconnected essays on three subjects to which he has made notable contributions. The first part of the book deals with the rule-following character of thought. The second discusses the many factors to which choice is rationally responsive - and by reference to which choice can be explained - consistently with being under the control of thought. The third examines the implications of this multiple sensitivity for the normative regulation of social affairs. Thus the volume covers a large swathe of territory, ranging from metaphysics to philosophical psychology to the theory of rational regulation. The connections that Pettit makes between these areas are original and illuminating. Each part of the book develops a key theme. The first is that thought succeeds in following rules - and overcomes Wittgenstein's rule-following problem - so far as it is response-dependent; it is a sort of enterprise that is accessible only to creatures like us for whom certain responses are primitive and shared. The second is that while human choice may be sensitive to discursive reasons, as we would expect in a thinking subject, it can at the same time be subject to the control - the virtual control, in the model developed here - of rational self-interest. And the third is that the rational interest of agents in achieving esteem in the eyes of others, and in avoiding disesteem, exercises a virtual form of control that can explain the emergence of norms and various other aspects of social life.
How Norms Change Wayne Sandholtz, Associate Professor of Political Science
Wayne Sandholtz. CHAPTER 3 Napoleonic Plunder and the Emergence of
Norms Revolutionary and imperial France followed the Roman model , in which
Author: Wayne Sandholtz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
'Prohibiting Plunder' traces and explains the emergence of international rules against wartime looting of cultural treasures, and explores how anti-plunder norms have developed over the past 200 years. The book covers highly topical events including the looting of thousands of antiquities from the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad.