The Archaeology of Human Ancestry

Human social life is constrained and defined by our cognitive and emotional dispositions, which are the legacy of our foraging ancestors. But how difficult is it to reconstruct the social systems and cultural traditions of those ancestors?

The Archaeology of Human Ancestry

Author: Stephen Shennan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134814488

Page: 472

View: 575

Human social life is constrained and defined by our cognitive and emotional dispositions, which are the legacy of our foraging ancestors. But how difficult is it to reconstruct the social systems and cultural traditions of those ancestors? The Archaeology of Human Ancestry provides a stimulating and provocative answer, in which archaeologists and biological anthropologists set out and demonstrate their reconstructive methods. Contributors use observations of primates and modern hunter-gatherers to illuminate the fossil and artefactual records. Thematic treatment covers the evolution of group size; group composition and the emotional structure of social bonds; sexual dimorphism and the sexual division of labour; and the origins of human cultural traditions. The Archaeology of Human Ancestry is an essential introduction to the subject for advanced undergraduates and researchers in archaeology and biological anthropology. It will also be used by workers in psychology, sociology and feminist studies as a resource for understanding human social origins.

The Archaeology of Human Ancestry

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Isaac, G.L. (1983) 'Aspects of human
evolution.' In D.S.Bendall (ed.) Evolutionfrom Molecules to Men, pp. 509–543.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Isaac, G.L. (1984) 'The archaeology of
human ...

The Archaeology of Human Ancestry

Author: Stephen Shennan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134814496

Page: 472

View: 437

Human social life is constrained and defined by our cognitive and emotional dispositions, which are the legacy of our foraging ancestors. But how difficult is it to reconstruct the social systems and cultural traditions of those ancestors? The Archaeology of Human Ancestry provides a stimulating and provocative answer, in which archaeologists and biological anthropologists set out and demonstrate their reconstructive methods. Contributors use observations of primates and modern hunter-gatherers to illuminate the fossil and artefactual records. Thematic treatment covers the evolution of group size; group composition and the emotional structure of social bonds; sexual dimorphism and the sexual division of labour; and the origins of human cultural traditions. The Archaeology of Human Ancestry is an essential introduction to the subject for advanced undergraduates and researchers in archaeology and biological anthropology. It will also be used by workers in psychology, sociology and feminist studies as a resource for understanding human social origins.

Creativity in Human Evolution and Prehistory

The book examines how our understanding of human creativity can be extended by exploring this phenomenon during human evolution and prehistory.

Creativity in Human Evolution and Prehistory

Author: Steven Mithen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134720130

Page: 312

View: 405

We live in a world surrounded by remarkable cultural achievements of human kind. Almost every day we hear of new innovations in technology, in medicine and in the arts which remind us that humans are capable of remarkable creativity. But what is human creativity? The modern world provides a tiny fraction of cultural diversity and the evidence for human creativity, far more can be seen by looking back into prehistory. The book examines how our understanding of human creativity can be extended by exploring this phenomenon during human evolution and prehistory. The book offers unique perspectives on the nature of human creativity from archaeologists who are concerned with long term patterns of cultural change and have access to quite different types of human behaviour than that which exists today. It asks whether humans are the only creative species, or whether our extinct relatives such as Homo habilis and the Neanderthals also displayed creative thinking. It explores what we can learn about the nature of human creativity from cultural developments during prehistory, such as changes in the manner in which the dead were buried, monuments constructed, and the natural world exploited. In doing so, new light is thrown on these cultural developments and the behaviour of our prehistoric ancestors. By examining the nature of creativity during human evolution and prehistory these archaeologists, supported by contributions from psychology, computer science and social anthropology, show that human creativity is a far more diverse and complex phenomena than simply flashes of genius by isolated individuals. Indeed they show that unless perspectives from prehistory are taken into account, our understanding of human creativity will be limited and incomplete.

Biological Anthropology and Prehistory

Devoting equal time to biological anthropology and prehistory, this text exposes students to the many sides of major controversial issues, involving students in the scientific thought process by allowing them to draw their own conclusions.

Biological Anthropology and Prehistory

Author: Patricia C. Rice

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317349814

Page: 592

View: 533

Written specifically for courses that cover biological anthropology and archaeology, this superbly illustrated new text offers the most balanced and up-to-date introduction to our human past. Devoting equal time to biological anthropology and prehistory, this text exposes students to the many sides of major controversial issues, involving students in the scientific thought process by allowing them to draw their own conclusions. Amidst discussions of bones and artifacts, the text maintains a focus on people, demonstrating to students how biological anthropology and archaeology apply to their lives today. Featuring the latest research and findings pulled from the original sources, this new text is far and away the most up-to-date text available. In addition, the superior art program features hundreds of photographs and figures, and the multimedia presentation options include documentary film clips and lecture launcher videos. Pat Rice, a recipient of AAA’s Outstanding Teacher Award and past-president of the General Anthropology Division of AAA, and Norah Moloney, an experienced professor and active archaeologist, present the material in a clear, refreshing, and straightforward writing style.

Human Evolution

This book discusses the latest comprehensive information about human evolution and is designed to be a reference and provide an overview of the topic and give the reader a structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the ...

Human Evolution

Author: Paul F. Kisak

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781532828843

Page: 600

View: 811

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans. The topic typically focuses on the evolutionary history of the primates-in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominids (or "great apes")-rather than studying the earlier history that led to the primates. The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryologyand genetics. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55million years ago. Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily, the Hominidaefamily diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family some 15-20 million years ago; African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged fromorangutans (Ponginae) about 14million years ago; the Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzees) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) about 8 million years ago; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated about 7.5 million years ago. The basic adaptation of the hominin line is bipedalism. The earliest bipedal hominin is considered to be either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin; alternatively, either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may instead be the last shared ancestor between chimps and humans. Ardipithecus, a full biped, arose somewhat later, and the early bipeds eventually evolved into the australopithecines, and later into the genus Homo. The earliest documented representative of the genus Homo is Homo habilis, which evolved around 2.8 million years ago, and is arguably the earliest species for which there is positive evidence of the use of stone tools. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, although it has been suggested that this was the time in which the human SRGAP2 gene doubled, producing a more rapid wiring of the frontal cortex. During the next million years a process of rapid encephalization occurred, and with the arrival of Homo erectus and Homo ergaster in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled to 850 cm3. (Such an increase in human brain size is equivalent to each generation having 125,000 more neurons than their parents.) It is believed that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first to use fire and complex tools, and were the first of the hominin line to leave Africa, spreading throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.3 to 1.8 million years ago. According to the recent African origin of modern humans theory, modern humans evolved in Africa possibly from Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis or Homo antecessorand migrated out of the continent some 50,000 to 100,000 years ago, gradually replacing local populations of Homo erectus, Denisova hominins, Homo floresiensis and Homo neanderthalensis. Archaic Homo sapiens, the forerunner of anatomically modern humans, evolved in the Middle Paleolithic between 400,000 and 250,000 years ago. This book discusses the latest comprehensive information about human evolution and is designed to be a reference and provide an overview of the topic and give the reader a structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the most affordable price possible. The accuracy and knowledge is of an international viewpoint as the edited articles represent the inputs of many knowledgeable individuals and some of the most current knowledge on the topic, based on the date of publication.

A Future for Archaeology

This book is published in honour of Professor Peter Ucko, who has played an unparalleled role in promoting awareness of the core issues in this volume among archaeologists.

A Future for Archaeology

Author: Robert Layton

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781844721269

Page: 251

View: 415

Over the last thirty years issues of culture, identity and meaning have moved out of the academic sphere to become central to politics and society at all levels from the local to the global. Archaeology has been at the forefront of these moves towards a greater engagement with the non-academic world, often in an extremely practical and direct way, for example in the disputes about the repatriation of human burials. Such disputes have been central to the recognition that previously marginalised groups have rights in their own past which are important for their future. The essays in this book look back at some of the most important events where a role for an archaeology concerned with the past in the present first emerged and look forward to the practical and theoretical issues now central to a socially engaged discipline and shaping its future. This book is published in honour of Professor Peter Ucko, who has played an unparalleled role in promoting awareness of the core issues in this volume among archaeologists.

Early Modern Humans at the Moravian Gate

The Upper Paleolithic fossils of the Mladec caves, South Moravia, excavated at the end of the 19th century, hold a key position in the current discussion on modern human emergence within Europe and the fate of the Neanderthals.

Early Modern Humans at the Moravian Gate

Author: Maria Teschler-Nicola

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3211492941

Page: 528

View: 865

The Upper Paleolithic fossils of the Mladec caves, South Moravia, excavated at the end of the 19th century, hold a key position in the current discussion on modern human emergence within Europe and the fate of the Neanderthals. Although undoubtedly early modern humans - recently radio carbon dated to 31.000 years BP - their morphological variability and the presence of archaic features are indicative to some degree of regional Neanderthal ancestry. The beautifully illustrated monograph addresses - for the first time - the complete assemblage of the finds, including the human cranial, post cranial, teeth and jaw fragments of several individuals (most of them stored at the Natural History Museum Vienna) as well as the faunal remains and the archaeological objects. Leading scientists present their results, obtained with innovative techniques such as DNA analysis, 3D-morphometry and isotope analysis, which are of great importance for further discussions on both human evolution and archaeological issues.

50 Great Myths of Human Evolution

A compendium of the most up-to-date and fascinating information in human evolution, this guide also equips readers with the skills to question and critically evaluate the field as it changes in the future.

50 Great Myths of Human Evolution

Author: John H. Relethford

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470673923

Page: 304

View: 243

50 Great Myths of Human Evolution uses common misconceptions to explore basic theory and research in human evolution and strengthen critical thinking skills for lay readers and students. Examines intriguing—yet widely misunderstood—topics, from general ideas about evolution and human origins to the evolution of modern humans and recent trends in the field Describes what fossils, archaeology, and genetics can tell us about human origins Demonstrates the ways in which science adapts and changes over time to incorporate new evidence and better explanations Includes myths such as “Humans lived at the same time as dinosaurs;” “Lucy was so small because she was a child;” “Our ancestors have always made fire;” and “There is a strong relationship between brain size and intelligence” Comprised of stand-alone essays that are perfect for casual reading, as well as footnotes and references that allow readers to delve more deeply into topics

Ancestral Images

Stephanie Moser analyzes the close relationship between representations of the past and theories about human evolution, showing how this relationship existed even before a scientific understanding of human origins developed.

Ancestral Images

Author: Stephanie Moser

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501729012

Page: 224

View: 653

Pictorial reconstructions of ancient human ancestors have twin purposes: to make sense of shared ancestry and to bring prehistory to life. Stephanie Moser analyzes the close relationship between representations of the past and theories about human evolution, showing how this relationship existed even before a scientific understanding of human origins developed. How did mythological, religious, and historically inspired visions of the past, in existence for centuries, shape this understanding? Moser treats images as primary documents, and her book is lavishly illustrated with engravings, paintings, photographs, and reconstructions. In surveying the iconography of prehistory, Moser explores visions of human creation from their origins in classical, early Christian, and medieval periods through traditions of representation initiated in the Renaissance. She looks closely at the first scientific reconstructions of the nineteenth century, which dramatized and made comprehensible the Darwinian theory of human descent from apes. She considers, as well, the impact of reconstructions on popular literature in Europe and North America, showing that early visualizations of prehistory retained a firm hold on the imagination—a hold that archaeologists and anthropologists have found difficult to shake.

Archaeological Review from Cambridge

Steele J . & Shennan S ( eds ) The Archaeology of Human Ancestry . Power , Sex
and Tradition 1996 . Routledge , London . 446pp . Illus . ISBN 0 - 41511862X .
Reviewed by Chantal Conneller , Department of Archaeology , Downing Street ...

Archaeological Review from Cambridge

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 345

Evolution of Human Sexual Dimorphism

In : The Archaeology of Human Ancestry . J. Steele and S. Shennan , eds .
Routledge , New York . Pp . 91-109 . Miller , R.G. 1974 The jackknife : a review .
Biometrika 61 : 1-15 . Milton , K. 1985 Mating and absence of canine tooth
dimorphism ...

Evolution of Human Sexual Dimorphism

Author: Sang-Hee Lee

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 380

View: 792

Darwin s Legacy

Darwin's Legacy provides a fascinating history of ideas about human evolution, which have been developed and debated since Darwin published The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex in 1871.

Darwin s Legacy

Author: Sue Taylor Parker

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0759103151

Page: 250

View: 718

Darwin's Legacy provides a fascinating history of ideas about human evolution, which have been developed and debated since Darwin published The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex in 1871.

The Rise of Homo sapiens

This is the first book to explain elaborately how thinking differences between Homo sapiens and Neandertals may have accounted for the ultimate demise of Neandertals.

The Rise of Homo sapiens

Author: Frederick L. Coolidge

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444356534

Page: 320

View: 287

Thinking Big How the Evolution of Social Life Shaped the Human Mind

Do we really carry our hominin past into our human present? It is these small worlds, and the link they allow to the study of the past that forms the central point in this book.

Thinking Big  How the Evolution of Social Life Shaped the Human Mind

Author: Robin Dunbar

Publisher: Thames & Hudson

ISBN: 0500772142

Page: 224

View: 661

A closer look at genealogy, incorporating how biological, anthropological, and technical factors can influence human lives We are at a pivotal moment in understanding our remote ancestry and its implications for how we live today. The barriers to what we can know about our distant relatives have been falling as a result of scientific advance, such as decoding the genomes of humans and Neanderthals, and bringing together different perspectives to answer common questions. These collaborations have brought new knowledge and suggested fresh concepts to examine. The results have shaken the old certainties. The results are profound; not just for the study of the past but for appreciating why we conduct our social lives in ways, and at scales, that are familiar to all of us. But such basic familiarity raises a dilemma. When surrounded by the myriad technical and cultural innovations that support our global, urbanized lifestyles we can lose sight of the small social worlds we actually inhabit and that can be traced deep into our ancestry. So why do we need art, religion, music, kinship, myths, and all the other facets of our over-active imaginations if the reality of our effective social worlds is set by a limit of some one hundred and fifty partners (Dunbar’s number) made of family, friends, and useful acquaintances? How could such a social community lead to a city the size of London or a country as large as China? Do we really carry our hominin past into our human present? It is these small worlds, and the link they allow to the study of the past that forms the central point in this book.

Rethinking Human Evolution

We might wonder why we should pursue new inquiries if we already know the story. Is paleoanthropology an evolutionary science? Are analyses of human evolution biological?

Rethinking Human Evolution

Author: Jeffrey H. Schwartz

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262037327

Page: 384

View: 797

Contributors from a range of disciplines consider the disconnect between human evolutionary studies and the rest of evolutionary biology. The study of human evolution often seems to rely on scenarios and received wisdom rather than theory and methodology, with each new fossil or molecular analysis interpreted as supporting evidence for the presumed lineage of human ancestry. We might wonder why we should pursue new inquiries if we already know the story. Is paleoanthropology an evolutionary science? Are analyses of human evolution biological? In this volume, contributors from disciplines that range from paleoanthropology to philosophy of science consider the disconnect between human evolutionary studies and the rest of evolutionary biology. All of the contributors reflect on their own research and its disciplinary context, considering how their fields of inquiry can move forward in new ways. The goal is to encourage a more multifaceted intellectual environment for the understanding of human evolution. Topics discussed include paleoanthropology's history of procedural idiosyncrasies; the role of mind and society in our evolutionary past; humans as large mammals rather than a special case; genomic analyses; computational approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction; descriptive morphology versus morphometrics; and integrating insights from archaeology into the interpretation of human fossils. Contributors Markus Bastir, Fred L. Bookstein, Claudine Cohen, Richard G. Delisle, Robin Dennell, Rob DeSalle, John de Vos, Emma M. Finestone, Huw S. Groucutt, Gabriele A. Macho, Fabrizzio Mc Manus, Apurva Narechania, Michael D. Petraglia, Thomas W. Plummer, J.W. F. Reumer, Jeff Rosenfeld, Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Dietrich Stout, Ian Tattersall, Alan R. Templeton, Michael Tessler, Peter J. Waddell, Martine Zilversmit

Language Evolution

Hammer , Michael F . ( 1995 ) , “ A recent common ancestry for human Y
chromosomes ” , Nature 378 , 376 - 378 . ... Isaac , Glynn L . ( 1978 ) , “ Food
sharing and human evolution : Archaeological evidence from the Plio -
Pleistocene of East ...

Language Evolution

Author: Gábor Győri

Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9783631365656

Page: 275

View: 883

The volume contains a selection of papers read at recent meetings of the Language Origins Society. The papers address the problem of the origins and evolution of language both as a biological capacity and as a symbol system. The discussions of these issues include approaches from such various fields as biology, ethology, linguistics, philosophy, primatology and psychology. The book is divided into three parts according to the main perspectives taken by the contributors. Part I addresses the relationship between evolution and language and deals with the problem of language origins specifically from various aspects within the framework of human evolution. Part II deals with the question of language structure and function as shaped by evolution. Part III discusses the views of three famous philosophers on language and how these views can be utilized in explanations of language origins.

The Origins of Virtue

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 6 : 29 – 38 . 6 Hawkes , K . 1995 . Foraging
differences between men and women . In : The Archaeology of Human Ancestry (
eds . Steele , J . and Shennan , S . ) . Routledge , London . 7 Ridley , M . 1993 .

The Origins of Virtue

Author: Matt Ridley

Publisher: Viking Adult

ISBN:

Page: 295

View: 136

Suggests a biological basis for the social organization and cooperation shown by the human race, and traces the evolution of society

Human Evolution and Prehistory

The Canadian Archaeological Association and the development of archaeology
in Canada. ... In N.A. Chagnon & W. Irons, (Eds.), Evolutionary Biology and
human social behavior (pp. 454^61). ... Natural selection and evolution's smoking
gun.

Human Evolution and Prehistory

Author: William A. Haviland

Publisher: Nelson

ISBN: 9780176414894

Page: 2

View: 936

The Palaeolithic of the Hampshire Basin

Gamble , C. S. , 1996b , ' Making tracks : hominid networks and the evolution of
the social landscape ' , in J. Steele , and S.Shennan ( eds . ) , The Archaeology of
Human Ancestry , 253277 , Routledge , London and New York . Gamble , C. S. ...

The Palaeolithic of the Hampshire Basin

Author: Robert Hosfield

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN:

Page: 218

View: 613

A challenging reply to those who have considered the evidence for Lower and Middle Palaeolithic hominid behaviour as disparate and unworkable. Robert Hosfield takes a new approach to the data involving spatial modelling techniques and GIS-based models in investigating demographic trends and long-term behaviour patterns of Middle Pleistocene hominids in the Hampshire Basin. The study goes beyond the lithic assemblage, site-based studies typical of this period and presents some interesting conclusions on long-term changes and trends.

Science in Archaeology

... CS , 1984 Regional variation in huntergatherer strategy in the upper
Pleistocene of Europe , in Hominid evolution and ... 1996 On predicting hominid
group sizes , in The archaeology of human ancestry ( eds J Steele and S
Shennan ) , 230 ...

Science in Archaeology

Author: Justine Bayley

Publisher: Historic England Publishing

ISBN:

Page: 241

View: 781

A collection of papers presented at a conference in London in February 1997, assessing the contribution of science to archaeology. Contributions include: Questions for Palaeolithic science and science for Palaeolithic questions (Clive Gamble) ; Archaeological science and proto-historic societies (Martin Millett) ; Medieval and later: composing an agenda (Grenville Astill) , The "expensive tissue hypothesis" and the evolution of the human adaptive niche (Leslie Aiello) ; Questions for archaeological science from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age (Richard Bradley) ; The archaeological study of medieval English human populations, AD 1066-1540 (Simon Mays) , The study of food remains from prehistoric Britain (Tony Legge, Sebastian Payne and Peter Rowley-Conwy) .