Strong Borders Secure Nation

Yet, as M. Taylor Fravel shows in Strong Borders, Secure Nation, concerns that China might be prone to violent conflict over territory are overstated.

Strong Borders  Secure Nation

Author: M. Taylor Fravel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400828872

Page: 408

View: 792

As China emerges as an international economic and military power, the world waits to see how the nation will assert itself globally. Yet, as M. Taylor Fravel shows in Strong Borders, Secure Nation, concerns that China might be prone to violent conflict over territory are overstated. The first comprehensive study of China's territorial disputes, Strong Borders, Secure Nation contends that China over the past sixty years has been more likely to compromise in these conflicts with its Asian neighbors and less likely to use force than many scholars or analysts might expect. By developing theories of cooperation and escalation in territorial disputes, Fravel explains China's willingness to either compromise or use force. When faced with internal threats to regime security, especially ethnic rebellion, China has been willing to offer concessions in exchange for assistance that strengthens the state's control over its territory and people. By contrast, China has used force to halt or reverse decline in its bargaining power in disputes with its militarily most powerful neighbors or in disputes where it has controlled none of the land being contested. Drawing on a rich array of previously unexamined Chinese language sources, Strong Borders, Secure Nation offers a compelling account of China's foreign policy on one of the most volatile issues in international relations.

Active Defense

What accounts for these numerous changes? Active Defense offers the first systematic look at China's military strategy from the mid-twentieth century to today.

Active Defense

Author: M. Taylor Fravel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691210330

Page: 396

View: 368

What changes in China’s modern defense policy reveal about military organizations and strategy Active Defense offers the first systematic look at China’s military strategy from the mid-twentieth century to today. Exploring the range and intensity of threats that China has faced, M. Taylor Fravel illuminates the nation’s past and present military goals, and offers a rich set of cases for deepening the study of how and why states alter their defense policies.

The Paracel Islands and U S Interests and Approaches in the South China Sea

7 . 53. Hong , p . 12 ; Nota Bene ; and South China Sea ( II ) , ICG , p . 37 . 54. Fravel , Strong Borders , Secure Nation , pp .

The Paracel Islands and U S  Interests and Approaches in the South China Sea

Author: Clarence J. Bouchat

Publisher: Department of the Army


Page: 199

View: 862

The Paracel Islands and South China Sea disputes require better understanding by U.S. policymakers in order to address the regions challenges. To attain that needed understanding, legal aspects of customary and modern laws are explored in this monograph to analyze the differences between competing maritime and territorial claims, and why and how China and Vietnam stake rival claims or maritime legal rights. Throughout, U.S. policies are examined through U.S. conflicted interests in the region. Recommendations for how the United States should engage these issues, a more appropriate task than trying to solve the disputes outright, are then offered.


The Pessoptimist Nation William A. Callahan ... M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes ...


Author: William A. Callahan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191609501

Page: 288

View: 338

The rise of China presents a long-term challenge to the world not only economically, but politically and culturally. Callahan meets this challenge in China: The Pessoptimist Nation by using new Chinese sources and innovative analysis to see how Chinese people understand their new place in the world. To chart the trajectory of its rise, the book shifts from examining China's national interests to exploring its national aesthetic. Rather than answering the standard social science question "what is China?" with statistics of economic and military power, this book asks "when, where, and who is China?" to explore the soft power dynamics of China's identity politics. China: The Pessoptimist Nation shows how the heart of Chinese foreign policy is not a security dilemma, but an identity dilemma. Through careful analysis, Callahan charts how Chinese identity emerges through the interplay of positive and negative feelings in a dynamic that intertwines China's domestic and international politics. China thus is the pessoptimist nation where national security is closely linked to nationalist insecurities. Callahan concludes that this interactive view of China's pessoptimist identity means that we need to rethink the role of the state and public opinion in Beijing's foreign policy-making.

Countering Coercion in Maritime Asia

M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008), ...

Countering Coercion in Maritime Asia

Author: Michael Green

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442279982

Page: 294

View: 307

In the past decade, tensions in Asia have risen as Beijing has become more assertive in maritime disputes with its neighbors and the United States. Although taking place below the threshold of direct military confrontation, China’s assertiveness frequently involves coercive elements that put at risk existing rules and norms; physical control of disputed waters and territory; and the credibility of U.S. security commitments. Regional leaders have expressed increasing alarm that such “gray zone” coercion threatens to destabilize the region by increasing the risk of conflict and undermining the rules-based order. Yet, the United States and its allies and partners have struggled to develop effective counters to China’s maritime coercion. This study reviews deterrence literature and nine case studies of coercion to develop recommendations for how the United States and its allies and partners could counter gray zone activity.

Bridging Troubled Waters

This assumption has most recently been employed by Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation, 12–13. This assumption is common in the literature on territorial ...

Bridging Troubled Waters

Author: James Manicom

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 162616035X

Page: 280

View: 741

Sino-Japanese relations have been repeatedly strained by the territorial dispute over a group of small islands, known as the Senkaku islands in Japan and the Diaoyu islands in China. The rich fishing grounds, key shipping lanes, and perhaps especially, potentially rich oil deposits around the islands exacerbate this dispute in a confluence of resource pressures, growing nationalism, and rising military spending in the region. Bridging Troubled Waters reminds us that the tensions over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands are only a part of a long history of both conflict and cooperation in maritime relations between Japan and China. James Manicom examines the cooperative history between China and Japan at sea and explains the conditions under which two rivals can manage disputes over issues such as territory, often correlated with war. China and Japan appear incapable of putting history behind them, are poised on the brink of a strategic rivalry, and seem at risk of falling into an unintentional war over disputed maritime claims. Bridging Troubled Waters challenges this view by offering a case-by-case analysis of how China and Japan have managed maritime tensions since the dispute erupted in 1970. The author advances an approach that offers a trade-off between the most important stakes in the disputed maritime area with a view to establishing a stable maritime order in the East China Sea. The book will be of interest to policymakers, academics, and regional specialists in Asia, security studies, and international conflict and cooperation.

Regional Disorder

27 Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation, pp. 280–83. 28 Reliable statistics on the number of casualties are difficult to verify. China lost 18 sailors, ...

Regional Disorder

Author: Sarah Raine

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351224042

Page: 228

View: 813

Chinas rise casts a vast and uncertain shadow over the regional balance of power in the Asia Pacific, and nowhere is this clearer than in the South China Sea. The significance of the fraught territorial disputes in this potentially resource-rich sea extends far beyond the small groupings of islands that are at their heart, and into the world of great-power politics. As the struggle for hegemony between the US and China intersects with the overlapping aspirations of emerging, smaller nations, the risk of escalation to regional conflict is real. Christian Le Mi and Sarah Raine cut through the complexities of these disputes with a clear-sighted, and much-needed, analysis of the assorted strategies deployed in support of the multiple and competing claims in the SCS. They make a compelling case that the course of these disputes will determine whether the regional order in Southeast Asia is one of cooperation, or one of competition and even conflict.

The Politics of Nation Building

Greece: A Jewish History. Princeton, N.J., and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Fravel, M.Taylor. 2008. Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and ...

The Politics of Nation Building

Author: Harris Mylonas

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110702045X

Page: 255

View: 284

Mylonas argues that foreign policy goals and international relations drives a state's assimilation or exclusion policies towards an ethnic group.

Japan s Border Issues

Takeuchi, Yoichi (DVD, director), Unknown Tales of Northern Borders: Karafuto ... Fravel, M. Taylor, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict ...

Japan s Border Issues

Author: Akihiro Iwashita

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317424018

Page: 144

View: 710

Japan was sometimes described as a country of "peace" during the Cold War period, in contrast to the continental border conflicts taking place at the time, such as the China-Soviet rivalry. However, as the maritime frontier was "rediscovered" and defined by the regional powers and legal refinements of the 1970s, the process of states seeking a secure maritime zone has accelerated and maritime rivalries have become as intense as inland rivalries. This book examines the territorial disputes souring relations between Japan and its three neighbours: Russia, South Korea and China. It combines an empirical study with theoretical advancements in comparative research to understand the Cold War and post-Cold War border issues related to Japan, particularly the Northern Territories/South Kurils dispute with Russia; Takeshima/Dokto with Korea; and Senkaku/Diaoyu with China and Taiwan. Based on the history of negotiations with the Soviet Union and Russia over the course of fifty years, the study offers a series of practical suggestions to enable these disputes to be separated from arguments over their history and resolved on the basis of the principle of mutual advantage for those affected by them. This book provides not only the key to resolving these three disputes affecting East Asia, but the framework in which to seek the resolution of other territorial issues worldwide. Explaining the history and possible outcomes of Japan’s territorial disputes with Russia, South Korea and China whilst providing concrete steps for resolving entrenched territorial disputes, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of International Relations, Japanese Politics and International Law.

Beijing s Power and China s Borders

China's bordersoffer tremendous opportunities, especially interms ofeconomic ... M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in ...

Beijing s Power and China s Borders

Author: Bruce Elleman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317515641

Page: 392

View: 203

China shares borders with 20 other countries. Each of these neighbors has its own national interests, and in some cases, these include territorial and maritime jurisdictional claims in places that China also claims. Most of these 20 countries have had a history of border conflicts with China; some of them never amicably settled. This book brings together some of the foremost historians, geographers, political scientists, and legal scholars on modern Asia to examine each of China's twenty land or sea borders.

Chinese and Indian Strategic Behavior

of using force in areas far from its own borders. ... See also M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's ...

Chinese and Indian Strategic Behavior

Author: George J. Gilboy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107379636


View: 276

This book offers an empirical comparison of Chinese and Indian international strategic behavior. It is the first study of its kind, filling an important gap in the literature on rising Indian and Chinese power and American interests in Asia. The book creates a framework for the systematic and objective assessment of Chinese and Indian strategic behavior in four areas: (1) strategic culture; (2) foreign policy and use of force; (3) military modernization (including defense spending, military doctrine and force modernization); and (4) economic strategies (including international trade and energy competition). The utility of democratic peace theory in predicting Chinese and Indian behavior is also examined. The findings challenge many assumptions underpinning Western expectations of China and India.

Cross Border Resource Management

Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Confliction in China's Territorial Disputes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Frey, F., 1993.

Cross Border Resource Management

Author: Rongxing Guo

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080983197

Page: 331

View: 327

Rational exploitation and utilization of natural and environmental resources is more difficult in cross-border areas than in areas under the jurisdiction of a single authority. Moreover, cross-border resource management is constrained by the number of independent stakeholders involved. The primary reasons for this come from the uneven spatial distribution of production factors as well as the non-cooperative cross-border mechanism resulting from two or more political regimes. Faced with cross-border pollution, policymakers tend to be shortsighted, emphasizing the direct costs and benefits of their own regional development at the expenses of their neighbors. In addition, research institutions and international donor agencies have not paid full attention to the problems common in cross-border areas. Consequently, cross-border area studies remain a marginalized, easily forgotten topic. The main objectives of this book are to clarify how natural and human systems interact in cross-border areas under conditions of uncertain, imperfect information and, in some circumstances, irreversibility; to identify and, where possible, quantify the various impacts of the 'border' on the environmental activities in cross-border areas; to evaluate the costs and benefits of cross-border cooperation in the exploitation and utilization of natural and environmental resources; and to recommend measures in improving national and international legal and regulatory mechanisms for resource exploitation and environmental protection in cross-border areas. * Examines various types of cross-border areas at both international and sub-national levels throughout the world as well as their geographical, political, economic and cultural influences on the cross-border resource management * Uses the latest international and area data, resulting in new findings for cross-border environmental activities * Contains numerous case studies throughout the world including in-depth case studies of cross-border resource management

Border Disputes A Global Encyclopedia 3 volumes

Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Fravel, M. Taylor.

Border Disputes  A Global Encyclopedia  3 volumes

Author: Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610690249

Page: 1218

View: 561

An ideal resource for anyone studying current events, social studies, geopolitics, conflict resolution, and political science, this three-volume set provides broad coverage of approximately 80 current international border disputes and conflicts. • Supplies introductory essays at the beginning of each volume that explain the type of dispute to be examined, providing students with a solid foundation as they examine the case study entries • Includes excerpts and full text of important primary source documents such as key court rulings and treaties resolving border disputes • Supports the national geography standards curriculum for high school students as well as the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography topics • Provides a glossary of key terms and concepts, numerous maps, and a bibliography of sources of further information

Why Nations Rise

M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008), ...

Why Nations Rise

Author: Manjari Chatterjee Miller

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190639954

Page: 320

View: 264

What are rising powers? Do they challenge the international order? Why do some countries but not others become rising powers? In Why Nations Rise, Manjari Chaterjee Miller answers these questions and shows that some countries rise not just because they develop the military and economic power to do so but because they develop particular narratives about how to become a great power in the style of the great power du jour. These active rising powers accept the prevalent norms of the international order in order to become great powers. On the other hand, countries which have military and economic power but not these narratives do not rise enough to become great powers--they stay reticent powers. An examination of the narratives in historical (the United States, the Netherlands, Meiji Japan) and contemporary (Cold War Japan, post-Cold War China and India) cases, Why Nations Rise shows patterns of active and reticent rising powers and presents lessons for how to understand the rising powers of China and India today.

China s Policy towards the South China Sea

Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Gao, J.J. 2004.

China s Policy towards the South China Sea

Author: Lingqun Li

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351657364

Page: 254

View: 948

This book provides an explanation of Chinese policy towards the South China Sea, and argues that this has been sculpted by the changing dynamics of the law of the sea in conjunction with regional geopolitical flux. The past few decades have witnessed a bifurcated trend in China’s management of territorial disputes. Over the years, while China gradually calmed and settled most land-border disputes with its neighbors, disputes on the ocean frontier continued to simmer in a seething cauldron. China's Policy towards the South China Sea attributes the distinctive path of China’s approach to maritime disputes to a unique factor – the law of the sea (LOS) as the "rules of the road" in the ocean. By deconstructing the concept of "sovereignty" and treating the LOS as an evolving regime, the book examines how the changing dynamics of the LOS regime have complicated and reshaped the nature and content of sovereign disputes in the ocean regime as well as the options of settlement. Applying the findings to the South China Sea case, the author traces the learning curve on which China has embarked to comprehend the complexity of the dispute accordingly and finds that it is the dynamic interaction of the law of the sea regime and the geopolitical conditions that has driven the evolution of China’s South China Sea policy. This book will be of great interest to students of Chinese and Asian politics, international law, international relations and security studies.

Cross Border Management

369 17.4 Customs and Border Control . ... 371 17.5 Strong Borders, Secure Nations . ... 372 17.5.2 Border Control System .

Cross Border Management

Author: Rongxing Guo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662451565

Page: 407

View: 225

This book presents a new approach to management in an increasingly interactive world. In this context, the use of the word “new” has two meanings. The first relates to a new definition of borders (which are natural, institutional, functional, or mixed); the second concerns the fact that the book applies (and, where necessary, develops) analytical tools, methods and models that are different from those used in other similar books. The objectives of this book are: to clarify whether existing management theories and methods can be effectively applied in an entity (which can be defined as a sovereign country, a region, a community, a culture, or a firm) as the latter increasingly interacts with the rest of the world; to develop qualitative and quantitative methods to help leaders make optimal decisions for their entity and, at the same time, to maximize the positive (or minimize the negative) effects of those decisions on the rest of the world; and to design workable cross-border cooperation plans and conflict-management schemes that allow policy-makers to better cope with the challenges and problems posed by our increasingly interactive world.

Managing Fragile Regions

Choson Ilbo (English) (February 12, 2010) Border guards 'key to trafficking ... Fravel MT (2008) Strong borders secure nation: cooperation and conflict in ...

Managing Fragile Regions

Author: Rongxing Guo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441964366

Page: 174

View: 391

This book gathers the work of leading scholars from several disciplines on fragile regions, especially those regions seeking to preserve, strengthen or create processes to restore or reestablish security and effective social and economic management. It tackles the multifarious issues that shape and affect fragile regions, drawing upon a wide range of intellectual and methodological approaches, including such fields as area studies, natural resource science, biology, environmental and resource economics and management, and political economy. The volume brings together the perspectives of a diverse group of contributors from Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. Managing Fragile Regions: Method and Application addresses a variety of factors – natural, political, administrative, legislative, economic, social, and cultural – and examines how they exert influences on the operational mechanisms of fragile regions, especially in the contexts of peace and security, economic development, and environmental management. The volume’s nine chapters cover a wide range of examples of fragile regions and their challenges. It will be of interest and utility to practitioners and policy-makers engaged in disaster management and post-disaster reconstruction. Students, researchers, and other professionals involved in resource management, regional science, and environmental science will also find it valuable reading.

Shadow States

Fravel, Strong borders, secure nation, p. 182. 84 Itanagar, APSA, NEFA Secretariat (1962), Development activities of the Chinese across the border PC-55/62L ...

Shadow States

Author: Bérénice Guyot-Réchard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131682845X


View: 606

Since the mid-twentieth century China and India have entertained a difficult relationship, erupting into open war in 1962. Shadow States is the first book to unpack Sino-Indian tensions from the angle of competitive state-building - through a study of their simultaneous attempts to win the approval and support of the Himalayan people. When China and India tried to expand into the Himalayas in the twentieth century, their lack of strong ties to the region and the absence of an easily enforceable border made their proximity threatening - observing China and India's state-making efforts, local inhabitants were in a position to compare and potentially choose between them. Using rich and original archival research, Bérénice Guyot-Réchard shows how India and China became each other's 'shadow states'. Understanding these recent, competing processes of state formation in the Himalayas is fundamental to understanding the roots of tensions in Sino-Indian relations.