European. Diplomacy. in. Crisis. Lessons From the Congress of Berlin of 1878
Nina Markovic Khaze The Congress of Berlin of 1878 (hereafter the Congress) is
remembered as one of three major European peace conferences of the ...
Author: Bronwyn Winter
Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe’s history. To understand Europe’s present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Verner, The Crisis of Russian Autocracy, 58. Witte was even (briefly) prime
minister in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution in Russia. Ibid., 319–25.
Additional speculation regarding the tsar's motivation in dismissing Witte in
August 1903 is ...
Author: Bailey Stone
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
"Reconsidering the English, French, and Russian revolutions, this book offers an important approach to the theoretical and comparative study of revolutions. Stone proposes an innovative 'neostructuralist' synthesis of competing structuralist and postmodernist theory that marks a critical advance in our understanding of revolution"--
Growing Soviet criticism of the Brezhnev period not only undercut the policies
pursued in Eastern Europe in the 1970s and early 1980s ; as scholars
increasingly traced the origins of the USSR ' s crisis back to earlier phases of its
... in Eastern Europe by pressuring them to adopt reform programs , the fact was
that leading Soviet reformers increasingly argued that the problem was systemic
in nature .
Author: Ronald D. Asmus
Publisher: Rand Corporation
This report analyzes the collapse of Communist rule in Eastern Europe in 1989 and assesses the role of changes in Soviet foreign policy in precipitating this collapse. It finds that the preceding 40 years of economic and social failure by the Communist regimes, the illegitimacy of Communist rule, the consolidation of societal opposition, loss of confidence in the ruling elites, and the improvement in East-West relations created the conditions leading to the collapse of Communist rule. However, the change in Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev was the precipitating event. Once change began, the removal of the Communist leadership in one country led to upheavals in others. The Soviet leadership did not foresee the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe; rather, it believed that the old regimes would be replaced by reformers. It also failed to see the unification of Germany as an outcome of the collapse of the Honecker regime. In the future, Soviet influence in Eastern Europe will be diminished but will not ebb to the low levels of the pre-World War II era. Economic and mutual security concerns will continue to tie Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union (or its successor), although much more loosely than in the past.
For if these three fail to agree in a crisis , Europe will in fact be opting out , while if
they are united on the need to take action , Europe will ... CENTRE FOR
EUROPEAN REFORM publications * Unilateral America and Europe ' s military
Author: Gilles Andréani
De tre forfattere mener at de forsvars- og udenrigspolitiske institutioner i Europa bør styrkes og at EUs budget bør finansiere våbenprogrammerne
The East European reforms contribute to the strength and stability of West
European political values , allowing Western Europe to ... The societal , cultural
and political level of development in the individual countries affects the shape
and coherence of their process of revolution . ... Western reactions to current and
future reforms and also to their possible negative spin - offs in economic and
political crises .
Author: Barry Buzan
Publisher: Burns & Oates
SCOTT (copy 1): From the Joohn Holmes Library Collection.