Rational Choice Theoretische Analysen und empirische Resultate

In der Soziologie finden Rational-Choice (RC)-Erklärungen zunehmende Verbreitung. Sie sollen einerseits zu einer Lösung allgemeiner theoretischer Kernprobleme (Erklärung von sozialer Ordnung, Kooperation und sozialen Normen) beitragen.

Rational Choice  Theoretische Analysen und empirische Resultate

Author: Andreas Diekmann

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531908669

Page: 344

View: 666

In der Soziologie finden Rational-Choice (RC)-Erklärungen zunehmende Verbreitung. Sie sollen einerseits zu einer Lösung allgemeiner theoretischer Kernprobleme (Erklärung von sozialer Ordnung, Kooperation und sozialen Normen) beitragen. Darüber hinaus dominiert die RC-Theorie mittlerweile zahlreiche Felder der empirischen Forschung. In diesem Band beschreiben namhafte Autoren die umfangreichen theoretischen und empirischen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. Ein Schwerpunkt der theoretischen Arbeiten sind Analysen sozialer Normen. Die empirischen Beiträge und Anwendungen behandeln ein breites Spektrum von Themen, u.a. aus der Soziologie des abweichenden Verhaltens, der politischen Soziologie und der Analyse des Terrorismus. Abgerundet werden die Aufsätze durch methodologische Überlegungen. Der Band liefert Studierenden und Forschern eine umfassende Orientierung über wichtige Entwicklungslinien dieses Forschungsprogramms.

Rational Choice in an Uncertain World

In the Second Edition of Rational Choice in an Uncertain World the authors compare the basic principles of rationality with actual behaviour in making decisions.

Rational Choice in an Uncertain World

Author: Reid Hastie

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412959039

Page: 374

View: 775

In the Second Edition of Rational Choice in an Uncertain World the authors compare the basic principles of rationality with actual behaviour in making decisions. They describe theories and research findings from the field of judgment and decision making in a non-technical manner, using anecdotes as a teaching device. Intended as an introductory textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, the material not only is of scholarly interest but is practical as well. The Second Edition includes: - more coverage on the role of emotions, happiness, and general well-being in decisions - a summary of the new research on the neuroscience of decision processes - more discussion of the adaptive value of (non-rational heuristics) - expansion of the graphics for decision trees, probability trees, and Venn diagrams.

Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory

This is the first comprehensive critical evaluation of the use of rational choice theory in political science.

Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory

Author: Donald Green

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300187084

Page: 256

View: 844

This is the first comprehensive critical evaluation of the use of rational choice theory in political science. Writing in an accessible and nontechnical style, Donald P. Green and Ian Shapiro assess rational choice theory where it is reputed to be most successful: the study of collective action, the behavior of political parties and politicians, and such phenomena as voting cycles and Prisoner's Dilemmas. In their hard-hitting critique, Green and Shapiro demonstrate that the much heralded achievements of rational choice theory are in fact deeply suspect and that fundamental rethinking is needed if rational choice theorists are to contribute to the understanding of politics. In their final chapters, they anticipate and respond to a variety of possible rational choice responses to their arguments, thereby initiating a dialogue that is bound to continue for some time.

Rational Choice Theory

This important volume argues in favour of re-establishing rather relaxed assumptions of rationality as a basis for building theory.

Rational Choice Theory

Author: Peter Abell

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN:

Page: 408

View: 385

'Rational Choice Theory is a flourishing branch of economic sociology.'Modern sociological theory has to a considerable degree been fashioned in reaction to assumptions about human rationality. This important volume argues in favour of re-establishing rather relaxed assumptions of rationality as a basis for building theory. Although such theories often fail, they prove to be more successful in building predictive and deductive models of human affairs than any competing theoretical framework. The volume includes important and seminal articles drawn from economics, game theory, utility theory and finds application in the Marxist theory of class, group theory, organization theory and the theory of power relations.This landmark book will be an essential reference companion for any serious student or researcher in modern sociological theory.

Rational Choice Theory

Balanced and insightful, this important new text gives a nuanced and elegant evaluation of the potential and limits of rational choice theory.

Rational Choice Theory

Author: Lina Eriksson

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 0230343791

Page: 296

View: 854

Few approaches in political science have generated so much controversy as rational choice theory. Some claim that the approach has made political science scientific. Its critics argue that it involves unrealistic assumptions about individual behaviour. While its tenets and benefits remain the subject of heated debate, rational choice theory is now established as a core approach in political science and one that is vital for contemporary students of the discipline to understand. With an impressive degree of clarity, the book introduces the philosophical foundations, the methodology and the key issues of rational choice theory. It shows how the approach has been constructively used to explain political phenomena and also reflects more broadly on how theories are developed and used in political science. Balanced and insightful, this important new text gives a nuanced and elegant evaluation of the potential and limits of rational choice theory.

Rational Choice Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften

DEr Hintergrund: Das Modell der Frame-Selektion;98 4.4.2;2. WAs ist Wertrationalitat?;101 4.4.3;3. DRei Rekonstruktionen;103 4.4.4;4. EIn Problem;104 4.4.5;5. ZWei Moglichkeiten;104 4.4.6;6. GUte Grunde und Konsequenzen;107 4.4.7;7.

Rational Choice Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften

Author: Andreas Diekmann

Publisher: De Gruyter Oldenbourg

ISBN:

Page: 360

View: 398

1;Inhalt;6 2;Vorwort;8 3;Teil A Einleitung;12 3.1;Die Theorie rationalen Handelns. STand und Perspektiven;14 3.1.1;1. BAusteine und Prinzip der RC-Theorie;15 3.1.2;2. SEU-Theorie;17 3.1.3;3. STrategien der Konstruktion von RC-Modellen;20 3.1.4;4. DIe Erklarung kollektiver Effekte;22 3.1.5;5. FAirness, Reziprozitat und soziale Normen;24 3.1.6;Literatur;28 4;Teil B Grundlagen;32 4.1;What Is Rationality?;34 4.1.1;1. EXpected Value of a Gamble (Pascal s Thesis);35 4.1.2;2. RAtionality Outside the Casino;39 4.1.3;3. DEcisions Under Uncertainty;41 4.1.4;4. CAusal and Evidential Theories of Rational Decision;42 4.1.5;6. EThical and Ideological Components in the Conception of Rationality;49 4.1.6;7. RAtionality From the Point of View of Reflexion Theory;52 4.1.7;8. ENter Decision Maker With a Conscience;56 4.1.8;9. MAthematical Psychoanalysis;57 4.1.9;10. IS Rationality a Platonic Category?;58 4.1.10;References;59 4.2;Irrationalitat und zyklische Praferenzen;62 4.2.1;1. TRansitivitat, Intransitivitat und Praferenzzyklen;62 4.2.2;2. EInwande gegen Praferenzzyklen;64 4.2.3;3. DIe Verteidigung von Praferenzzyklen;67 4.2.4;4. LAssen sich Praferenzzyklen oder nur zyklustrachtige Regeln verteidigen?;70 4.2.5;5. PRaferenzkonzeptionen;71 4.2.6;6. BEwertungsregeln und Zyklen schwach dispositionaler Praferenzen;74 4.2.7;7. ZYklen starker dispositionaler Praferenzen;75 4.2.8;8. SChlussbetrachtung;77 4.2.9;Literatur;78 4.3;Adaptive Rationalitat, Gruppenselektion und Ultrasozialitat;80 4.3.1;1. DAs Rationalitatsprinzip als Regel und Metaregel;80 4.3.2;2. EVolutionare Interpretationen und Erweiterungen des Rationalitatsprinzips;82 4.3.3;3. SElektionshierarchien;87 4.3.4;Literatur;94 4.4;Wertrationalitat;98 4.4.1;1. DEr Hintergrund: Das Modell der Frame-Selektion;98 4.4.2;2. WAs ist Wertrationalitat?;101 4.4.3;3. DRei Rekonstruktionen;103 4.4.4;4. EIn Problem;104 4.4.5;5. ZWei Moglichkeiten;104 4.4.6;6. GUte Grunde und Konsequenzen;107 4.4.7;7. WErte als konstitutionelle Interessen;108 4.4.8;8. RAtionale Grunde;110 4.4.9;9. DIe Stabilisierung der Werte: Kognitive und soziale Systeme ;110 4.4.10;Literatur;112 4.5;Frame Dependent Modeling of Influence Processes;114 4.5.1;1. INtroduction;114 4.5.2;2. MOdeling Influence in Policy Networks;116 4.5.3;3. MOdeling Influence in Friendship Networks;119 4.5.4;4. COnclusions;124 4.5.5;References;125 4.6;Tausch in Netzwerken;130 4.6.1;1. MArkt und Netzwerkstruktur;130 4.6.2;2. THeorien und Fragen;132 4.6.3;3. MOdellierungsansatz;134 4.6.4;4. EXperimente und Design;137 4.6.5;5. VOrhersagen und Befunde;138 4.6.6;Literatur;141 4.7;Kommunikationsstruktur und Leistung sozialer Systeme: Simulationen zu den Konsequenzen lokal rationalen Handelns unter verschiedenen Strukturbedingungen.;144 4.7.1;1. EInfuhrung;144 4.7.2;2. KOnzepte;145 4.7.3;3. MIkroprozesse und Makrostruktur: Vom Handeln individueller Akteure zur Entstehung der Gruppenstruktur und zur Gruppen-Leistung;152 4.7.4;Literatur;161 4.8;Die Uberprufung von Rational-Choice-Modellen mit Umfragedaten.;164 4.8.1;1. RC-Modelle und Umfrageforschung: ein gespanntes Verhaltnis;164 4.8.2;2. ZWei Strategien zur uberprufung von RC-Modellen mit Umfragedaten;167 4.8.3;3. EIn Beispiel: Ein RC-Modell des Scheidungsprozesses;173 4.8.4;4. DIe Grenzen von (Standard-) Umfragedaten;175 4.8.5;5. DIskussion;178 4.8.6;Literaturverzeichnis;179 5;Teil C Anwendungen;182 5.1;Soziale Mechanismen rationalen Vertrauens: Eine theoretische Skizze und Resultate aus empirischen Studien.;184 5.1.1;1. VErtrauen beim sozialen und okonomischen Tausch;186 5.1.2;2. LErn- und Kontrolleffekte in Dyaden und in Netzwerken;188 5.1.3;3. EIne Feldstudie uber Mechanismen des Vertrauens bei IT-Transaktionen;193 5.1.4;4. EIn Vignettenexperiment zu Transaktionen zwischen Abnehmern und Lieferanten;198 5.1.5;5. EIn Vignettenexperiment zum Kauf von Gebrauchtwagen;204 5.1.6;6. ZUsammenfassung und Ausblick

Rational Choice Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften

DEr Hintergrund: Das Modell der Frame-Selektion;98 4.4.2;2. WAs ist Wertrationalitat?;101 4.4.3;3. DRei Rekonstruktionen;103 4.4.4;4. EIn Problem;104 4.4.5;5. ZWei Moglichkeiten;104 4.4.6;6. GUte Grunde und Konsequenzen;107 4.4.7;7.

Rational Choice Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften

Author: Andreas Diekmann

Publisher: Oldenbourg Verlag

ISBN: 9783486566444

Page: 360

View: 638

1;Inhalt;6 2;Vorwort;8 3;Teil A Einleitung;12 3.1;Die Theorie rationalen Handelns. STand und Perspektiven;14 3.1.1;1. BAusteine und Prinzip der RC-Theorie;15 3.1.2;2. SEU-Theorie;17 3.1.3;3. STrategien der Konstruktion von RC-Modellen;20 3.1.4;4. DIe Erklarung kollektiver Effekte;22 3.1.5;5. FAirness, Reziprozitat und soziale Normen;24 3.1.6;Literatur;28 4;Teil B Grundlagen;32 4.1;What Is Rationality?;34 4.1.1;1. EXpected Value of a Gamble (Pascal s Thesis);35 4.1.2;2. RAtionality Outside the Casino;39 4.1.3;3. DEcisions Under Uncertainty;41 4.1.4;4. CAusal and Evidential Theories of Rational Decision;42 4.1.5;6. EThical and Ideological Components in the Conception of Rationality;49 4.1.6;7. RAtionality From the Point of View of Reflexion Theory;52 4.1.7;8. ENter Decision Maker With a Conscience;56 4.1.8;9. MAthematical Psychoanalysis;57 4.1.9;10. IS Rationality a Platonic Category?;58 4.1.10;References;59 4.2;Irrationalitat und zyklische Praferenzen;62 4.2.1;1. TRansitivitat, Intransitivitat und Praferenzzyklen;62 4.2.2;2. EInwande gegen Praferenzzyklen;64 4.2.3;3. DIe Verteidigung von Praferenzzyklen;67 4.2.4;4. LAssen sich Praferenzzyklen oder nur zyklustrachtige Regeln verteidigen?;70 4.2.5;5. PRaferenzkonzeptionen;71 4.2.6;6. BEwertungsregeln und Zyklen schwach dispositionaler Praferenzen;74 4.2.7;7. ZYklen starker dispositionaler Praferenzen;75 4.2.8;8. SChlussbetrachtung;77 4.2.9;Literatur;78 4.3;Adaptive Rationalitat, Gruppenselektion und Ultrasozialitat;80 4.3.1;1. DAs Rationalitatsprinzip als Regel und Metaregel;80 4.3.2;2. EVolutionare Interpretationen und Erweiterungen des Rationalitatsprinzips;82 4.3.3;3. SElektionshierarchien;87 4.3.4;Literatur;94 4.4;Wertrationalitat;98 4.4.1;1. DEr Hintergrund: Das Modell der Frame-Selektion;98 4.4.2;2. WAs ist Wertrationalitat?;101 4.4.3;3. DRei Rekonstruktionen;103 4.4.4;4. EIn Problem;104 4.4.5;5. ZWei Moglichkeiten;104 4.4.6;6. GUte Grunde und Konsequenzen;107 4.4.7;7. WErte als konstitutionelle Interessen;108 4.4.8;8. RAtionale Grunde;110 4.4.9;9. DIe Stabilisierung der Werte: Kognitive und soziale Systeme ;110 4.4.10;Literatur;112 4.5;Frame Dependent Modeling of Influence Processes;114 4.5.1;1. INtroduction;114 4.5.2;2. MOdeling Influence in Policy Networks;116 4.5.3;3. MOdeling Influence in Friendship Networks;119 4.5.4;4. COnclusions;124 4.5.5;References;125 4.6;Tausch in Netzwerken;130 4.6.1;1. MArkt und Netzwerkstruktur;130 4.6.2;2. THeorien und Fragen;132 4.6.3;3. MOdellierungsansatz;134 4.6.4;4. EXperimente und Design;137 4.6.5;5. VOrhersagen und Befunde;138 4.6.6;Literatur;141 4.7;Kommunikationsstruktur und Leistung sozialer Systeme: Simulationen zu den Konsequenzen lokal rationalen Handelns unter verschiedenen Strukturbedingungen.;144 4.7.1;1. EInfuhrung;144 4.7.2;2. KOnzepte;145 4.7.3;3. MIkroprozesse und Makrostruktur: Vom Handeln individueller Akteure zur Entstehung der Gruppenstruktur und zur Gruppen-Leistung;152 4.7.4;Literatur;161 4.8;Die Uberprufung von Rational-Choice-Modellen mit Umfragedaten.;164 4.8.1;1. RC-Modelle und Umfrageforschung: ein gespanntes Verhaltnis;164 4.8.2;2. ZWei Strategien zur uberprufung von RC-Modellen mit Umfragedaten;167 4.8.3;3. EIn Beispiel: Ein RC-Modell des Scheidungsprozesses;173 4.8.4;4. DIe Grenzen von (Standard-) Umfragedaten;175 4.8.5;5. DIskussion;178 4.8.6;Literaturverzeichnis;179 5;Teil C Anwendungen;182 5.1;Soziale Mechanismen rationalen Vertrauens: Eine theoretische Skizze und Resultate aus empirischen Studien.;184 5.1.1;1. VErtrauen beim sozialen und okonomischen Tausch;186 5.1.2;2. LErn- und Kontrolleffekte in Dyaden und in Netzwerken;188 5.1.3;3. EIne Feldstudie uber Mechanismen des Vertrauens bei IT-Transaktionen;193 5.1.4;4. EIn Vignettenexperiment zu Transaktionen zwischen Abnehmern und Lieferanten;198 5.1.5;5. EIn Vignettenexperiment zum Kauf von Gebrauchtwagen;204 5.1.6;6. ZUsammenfassung und Ausblick

The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice

It bears noting that accepting the rational choice principle as a natural law does
not imply that every rational choice model sheds light on human behavior,
because the models abstract from many details of real choice settings. At this
point, the ...

The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice

Author: Roger D. Congleton

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks

ISBN: 0190469730

Page: 984

View: 571

"This two-volume collection provides a comprehensive overview of the past seventy years of public choice research, written by experts in the fields surveyed. The individual chapters are more than simple surveys, but provide readers with both a sense of the progress made and puzzles that remain. Most are written with upper level undergraduate and graduate students in economics and political science in mind, but many are completely accessible to non-expert readers who are interested in Public Choice research. The two-volume set will be of broad interest to social scientists, policy analysts, and historians"--

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

These conceptual models are both employed to analyze such crimes as drunk driving, gun use, kidnapping, and political violence. This volume discusses the relationship of these theories to more traditional approaches to crime studies.

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

Author: R. V. G. Clarke

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781560000877

Page: 418

View: 951

Two new criminological approaches are defined and applied to categories of crime in Routine Activity and Rational Choice, now available in paperback. Routine activity analyzes the criminal event, and avoids motivations and psychology as topics for discussion, whereas rational choice approaches crime as purposive behavior designed to meet the offender's commonplace needs, such as money, status, sex, and excitement. These conceptual models are both employed to analyze such crimes as drunk driving, gun use, kidnapping, and political violence. This volume discusses the relationship of these theories to more traditional approaches to crime studies. The Advances in Criminological Theory series encourages theory construction and validation in the articles and themes selected for publication. It also furthers the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. Following publication of the first volume, Michael J. Lynch of Florida State University asserted that "Advances in Criminological Theory is to be applauded as an attempt to revive criminological theory by providing an accessible outlet." Contributions to this volume include: Pierre Tremblay, "Searching for Suitable Co-offenders"; Raymond Paternoster and Sally Simpson, "A Rational Choice Theory of Corporate Crime"; Richard B. Felson, "Predatory and Dispute-related Violence"; Gordon Trasler, "Conscience, Opportunity, Rational Choice, and Crime"; Ezzat A. Fattah, "The Rational Choice/Opportunity Perspectives as a Vehicle for Integrating Criminological and Victimological Theories"; Patricia L. Brantingham and Paul J. Brantingham, "Environment, Routine, and Situation"; Maurice Cusson, "A Strategic Analysis of Crime"; Richard W. Harding, "Gun Use in Crime, Rational Choice, and Social Learning Theory."

Rational Choice Theory

Contributors to this volume are convinced that it provides an inadequate conceptualization of all aspects of decision making: of the individuals who make the decisions, of the process by which decisions get made and of the context within ...

Rational Choice Theory

Author: Margaret S. Archer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134546521

Page: 272

View: 525

Rational Choice Theory is flourishing in sociology and is increasingly influential in other disciplines. Contributors to this volume are convinced that it provides an inadequate conceptualization of all aspects of decision making: of the individuals who make the decisions, of the process by which decisions get made and of the context within which decisions get made. The ciritique focuses on the four assumptions which are the bedrock of rational choice: rationality: the theory's definition of rationality is incomplete, and cannot satisfactorily incorporate norms and emotions individualism: rational choice is based upon atomistic, individual decision makers and cannot account for decisions made by ;couples', 'groups' or other forms of collective action process: the assumption of fixed, well-ordered preferences and 'perfect information' makes the theory inadequate for situations of change and uncertainty aggregation: as methodological individualists, rational choice theorists can only view structure and culture as aggregates and cannot incorporate structural or cultural influences as emergent properties which have an effect upon decision making. The critique is grounded in discussion of a wide range of social issues, including race, marriage, health and education.

Rational Choice

This series brings together a carefully edited selection of the most influential and enduring articles on central topics in social and political theory. Each volume contains ten to twelve articles and an introductory essay by the editor.

Rational Choice

Author: Jon Elster

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814721699

Page: 266

View: 533

This series brings together a carefully edited selection of the most influential and enduring articles on central topics in social and political theory. Each volume contains ten to twelve articles and an introductory essay by the editor.

Interpretive Social Science

Namely, by its very nature, rational choice begins by bracketing the actually
psychological beliefs and motives that explain why individuals act the way they
do. Instead, rational choice simply posits an order of preferences. The
assumption is ...

Interpretive Social Science

Author: Mark Bevir

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 019883294X

Page: 224

View: 731

In this book Mark Bevir and Jason Blakely set out to make the most comprehensive case yet for an 'interpretive' or hermeneutic approach to the social sciences. Interpretive approaches are a major growth area in the social sciences today. This is because they offer a full-blown alternative to the behavioralism, institutionalism, rational choice, and other quasi-scientific approaches that dominate the study of human behavior. In addition to presenting a systematic case for interpretivism and a critique of scientism, Bevir and Blakely also propose their own uniquely 'anti-naturalist 'notion of an interpretive approach. This anti-naturalist framework encompasses the insights of philosophers ranging from Michel Foucault and Hans-Georg Gadamer to Charles Taylor and Ludwig Wittgenstein, while also resolving dilemmas that have plagued rival philosophical defenses of interpretivism. In addition, working social scientists are given detailed discussions of a distinctly interpretive approach to methods and empirical research. The book draws on the latest social science to cover everything from concept formation and empirical inquiry to ethics, democratic theory, and public policy. An anti-naturalist approach to interpretive social science offers nothing short of a sweeping paradigm shift in the study of human beings and society. This book will be of interest to all who seek a humanistic alternative to the scientism that overwhelms the study of human beings today.

Choice and Religion

"Choice and Religion provides a detailed critique of 'rational choice' to demonstrate that industrialisation has secularised the western world and that diversity, far from making religion more popular by allowing individuals to maximize ...

Choice and Religion

Author: Steve Bruce

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198295846

Page: 247

View: 608

"Choice and Religion provides a detailed critique of 'rational choice' to demonstrate that industrialisation has secularised the western world and that diversity, far from making religion more popular by allowing individuals to maximize their returns, undermines it. The claim that competition promotes religion is refuted with evidence from a wide variety of western societies. Bruce also examines the Nordic countries and the ex-communist states of eastern Europe to explore the consequences of different sorts of state regulation, and to show that ethnicity is a more powerful determinate of religious change than market structures. Where religion matters, it is not because individuals are maximising their returns but because it defines group identity and is deeply implicated in social conflict."--BOOK JACKET.

Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk

In this book, Paul Anand examines the normative interpretation of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU).

Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk

Author: Paul Anand

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198774426

Page: 161

View: 949

In this book, Paul Anand examines the normative interpretation of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU). He tests the philosophical and logical basis for associating SEU with rational choice. Decision theorists have increasingly come to accept the experimental evidence that subjects systematicallyviolate the axiomatic assumptions of SEU, and as a result the past decade has witnessed an explosion of mathematical models that seek to capture this behaviour. A current issue is whether axioms of SEU really are canons of rationality. Anand discusses whether the new decision-theoretic models aremore than just accounts of irrational behaviour. The main themes of the book are that, empirically, SEU is false, and that normatively it imposes unnecessary constraints on rational agency. Problems with Bayesianism are introduced and it is shown that useful distinctions between risk and uncertainty (in a Keynesian sense) can be made. Some of theradical methodological changes in economics that underpin theoretical developments in decision theory and economics are also discussed.

The Rational Choice

It is not a completely free choice , for all of us inherited certain patterns of trade ,
and have been to a greater or lesser extent ... I will argue that our present poverty
and national weakness make socialism the only rational choice for us .

The Rational Choice

Author: Julius K. Nyerere

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 13

View: 599

Rational Responses to Risks

An explanatory decision theory acknowledges these mental states even if they do
not have precisely accurate operational definitions. A common approach to
rational choice stops with an account of consistent choices. A normative theory ...

Rational Responses to Risks

Author: Paul Weirich

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0190089415

Page: 282

View: 398

"A philosophical account of risk, such as this book provides, states what risk is, which attitudes to it are rational, and which acts affecting risks are rational. Attention to the nature of risk reveals two types of risk, first, a chance of a bad event, and, second, an act's risk in the sense of the volatility of its possible outcomes. The distinction is normatively significant because different general principles of rationality govern attitudes to these two types of risk. Rationality strictly regulates attitudes to the chance of a bad event and is more permissive about attitudes to an act's risk. Principles of rationality governing attitudes to risk also justify evaluating an act according to its expected utility given that the act's risk, if any, belongs to every possible outcome of the act. For a rational ideal agent, the expected utilities of the acts available in a decision problem explain the agent's preferences among the acts. Maximizing expected utility is just following preferences among the acts. This view takes an act's expected utility, not just as a feature of a representation of preferences among acts, but also as a factor in the explanation of preferences among acts. It takes account of an agent's attitudes to an act's risk without weakening the standard of expected-utility maximization. The view extends to evaluations of combination of acts, either simultaneous or in a sequence. Applications cover hedging, return-risk evaluation, professional advice, and government regulation"--

Nested Games

Clearly written and easily understood by the nonspecialist, Nested Games provides a systematic, empirically accurate, and theoretically coherent account of apparently irrational political actions.

Nested Games

Author: George Tsebelis

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520911970

Page: 292

View: 308

Clearly written and easily understood by the nonspecialist, Nested Games provides a systematic, empirically accurate, and theoretically coherent account of apparently irrational political actions.

Rational Choice Theories Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need.

Rational Choice Theories  Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author: John Paul Wright

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199805733

Page: 16

View: 515

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of criminology find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of criminology. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

Mechanical Choices

Notice that there is nothing in the rational choice explanation of addictive
behaviors that evaluates the addict's chosen action, choice, and so on as actually
being desirable, morally permissible, or prudentially wise choices, actions, and
so on.

Mechanical Choices

Author: Michael S. Moore

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0190863994

Page: 616

View: 890

Mechanical Choices details the intimate connection that exists between morality and law: the morality we use to blame others for their misdeeds and the criminal law that punishes them for these misdeeds. This book shows how both law and morality presuppose the accuracy of common sense, a centuries-old psychology that defines people as rational agents who make honorable choices and act for just reasons. It then shows how neuroscience is commonly taken to challenge these fundamental psychological assumptions. Such challenges--four in number--are distinguished from each other by the different neuroscientific facts from which they arise: the fact that human choices are caused by brain events; the fact that those choices don't cause the actions that are their objects but are only epiphenomenal to those choices; the fact that those choices are identical to certain physical events in the brain; and the fact that human subjects are quite fallible in their knowledge of what they are doing and why. The body of this book shows how such challenges are either based on faulty facts or misconceived as to the relevance of such facts to responsibility. The book ends with a detailed examination of the neuroscience of addiction, an examination which illustrates how neuroscience can help rather than challenge both law and morality in their quest to accurately define excuses from responsibility.

Rational Choice

Assuming no prior knowledge, this widely-used and critically-acclaimed text provides a clear introduction to, and uniquely fair-minded assessment of, Rational Choice approaches.

Rational Choice

Author: Andrew Hindmoor

Publisher: Palgrave

ISBN: 1137427442

Page: 288

View: 237

Assuming no prior knowledge, this widely-used and critically-acclaimed text provides a clear introduction to, and uniquely fair-minded assessment of, Rational Choice approaches. The substantially revised, updated and extended new edition includes more substantial coverage of game theory, collective action, 'revisionist' public choice, and the use of rational choice in International Relations.