Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world.

Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

Author: John E. Mahan

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 9780471330011

Page: 340

View: 484

A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

Nanostructured Surfaces and Thin Films Synthesis by Physical Vapor Deposition

This Special Issue deals with the synthesis of nanostructured surfaces and thin films by means of physical vapor deposition techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS, or e-beam evaporation, among others.

Nanostructured Surfaces and Thin Films Synthesis by Physical Vapor Deposition

Author: Rafael Alvarez

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 3036503943

Page: 178

View: 610

This Special Issue deals with the synthesis of nanostructured surfaces and thin films by means of physical vapor deposition techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS, or e-beam evaporation, among others. The nanostructuration of the surface modifies the way a material interacts with the environment, changing its optical, mechanical, electrical, tribological, or chemical properties. This can be applied in the development of photovoltaic cells, tribological coatings, optofluidic sensors, or biotechnology to name a few. This issue includes research presenting novel or improved applications of nanostructured thin films, such as photovoltaic solar cells, thin-film transistors, antibacterial coatings or chemical and biological sensors, while also studying the nanostructuration mechanisms, from a fundamental point of view, that produce rods, columns, helixes or hexagonal grids at the nanoscale.

Principles of Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

Its ultimate goal as a reference is to provide the foundation upon which thin film science and technological innovation are possible. * Offers detailed derivation of important formulae. * Thoroughly covers the basic principles of materials ...

Principles of Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

Author: Professor K.S. K.S Sree Harsha

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080480312

Page: 1176

View: 373

The goal of producing devices that are smaller, faster, more functional, reproducible, reliable and economical has given thin film processing a unique role in technology. Principles of Vapor Deposition of Thin Films brings in to one place a diverse amount of scientific background that is considered essential to become knowledgeable in thin film depostition techniques. Its ultimate goal as a reference is to provide the foundation upon which thin film science and technological innovation are possible. * Offers detailed derivation of important formulae. * Thoroughly covers the basic principles of materials science that are important to any thin film preparation. * Careful attention to terminologies, concepts and definitions, as well as abundance of illustrations offer clear support for the text.

Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition

Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition

Author: Jeffrey A. Hopwood

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0125330278

Page: 253

View: 841

The tools and processes covered include DC hollow cathode magnetrons, RF inductively coupled plasmas, and microwave plasmas that are used for depositing technologically important materials such as copper, tantalum, titanium, TiN, and aluminum. In addition, this volume describes the important physical processes that occur in I-PVD in a simple and concise way. The physical descriptions are followed by experimentally-verified numerical models that provide in-depth insight into the design and operation I-PVD tools. Practicing process engineers, research and development scientists, and students will find that this book's integration of tool design, process development, and fundamental physical models make it an indispensable reference.-

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Processes and Techniques

This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years.

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Processes and Techniques

Author: Krishna Seshan

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0815517785

Page: 430

View: 957

New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues—as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together all the physical vapor deposition techniques. Two entirely new areas receive full treatment: chemical mechanical polishing which helps attain the flatness that is required by modern lithography methods, and new materials used for interconnect dielectric materials, specifically organic polyimide materials.

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition PVD Processing

Smith, H. M., and Turner, A. F., “Vacuum Deposited Thin Films Using a Ruby
Laser,” Appl. Optics, 4:147 (1965) 76. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films, (
D. B. Christy and G. K. Hubler, eds.), John Wiley (1994) 77. Cheugn, J. T., and
Sankur, ...

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition  PVD  Processing

Author: D. M. Mattox

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780080946580

Page: 944

View: 932

This book covers all aspects of physical vapor deposition (PVD) process technology from the characterizing and preparing the substrate material, through deposition processing and film characterization, to post-deposition processing. The emphasis of the book is on the aspects of the process flow that are critical to economical deposition of films that can meet the required performance specifications. The book covers subjects seldom treated in the literature: substrate characterization, adhesion, cleaning and the processing. The book also covers the widely discussed subjects of vacuum technology and the fundamentals of individual deposition processes. However, the author uniquely relates these topics to the practical issues that arise in PVD processing, such as contamination control and film growth effects, which are also rarely discussed in the literature. In bringing these subjects together in one book, the reader can understand the interrelationship between various aspects of the film deposition processing and the resulting film properties. The author draws upon his long experience with developing PVD processes and troubleshooting the processes in the manufacturing environment, to provide useful hints for not only avoiding problems, but also for solving problems when they arise. He uses actual experiences, called ""war stories"", to emphasize certain points. Special formatting of the text allows a reader who is already knowledgeable in the subject to scan through a section and find discussions that are of particular interest. The author has tried to make the subject index as useful as possible so that the reader can rapidly go to sections of particular interest. Extensive references allow the reader to pursue subjects in greater detail if desired. The book is intended to be both an introduction for those who are new to the field and a valuable resource to those already in the field. The discussion of transferring technology between R&D and manufacturing provided in Appendix 1, will be of special interest to the manager or engineer responsible for moving a PVD product and process from R&D into production. Appendix 2 has an extensive listing of periodical publications and professional societies that relate to PVD processing. The extensive Glossary of Terms and Acronyms provided in Appendix 3 will be of particular use to students and to those not fully conversant with the terminology of PVD processing or with the English language.

Thin Film Deposition

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Thin Film Deposition

Author: Books Llc

Publisher: Books LLC, Wiki Series

ISBN: 9781157463856

Page: 60

View: 719

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 59. Chapters: Evaporation, Chemical vapor deposition, Sol-gel, Thermal spraying, Focused ion beam, Diamond-like carbon, Sputter deposition, Tinning, Silicon on sapphire, Plating, Pulsed laser deposition, Atomic layer deposition, Epitaxy, Chemical beam epitaxy, Virtual Institute of Nano Films, Cathodic arc deposition, Electron beam physical vapor deposition, Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, Kinetic Monte Carlo surface growth method, Spin coating, Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition, Combustion chemical vapor deposition, Molecular beam epitaxy, Thermal barrier coating, Vacuum deposition, Trimethylindium, Ion plating, Angel gilding, Trimethylgallium, Electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition, Atomic layer epitaxy, Ion beam deposition, Triethylgallium, Dip-coating, Island growth, Sputter cleaning, Ion beam assisted deposition, Conformal film, Chemical bath deposition, Hydride vapour phase epitaxy, Homotopotaxy. Excerpt: The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique widely used in the fields of materials science and ceramic engineering. Such methods are used primarily for the fabrication of materials (typically metal oxides) starting from a colloidal solution (sol) that acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network polymers. Typical precursors are metal alkoxides and metal salts (such as chlorides, nitrates and acetates), which undergo various forms of hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions. In this chemical procedure, the 'sol' (or solution) gradually evolves towards the formation of a gel-like diphasic system containing both a liquid phase and solid phase whose morphologies range from discrete particles to continuous polymer networks. In the case of the colloid, the volume fraction of particles (or particle density) may be...

Non Classical Crystallization of Thin Films and Nanostructures in CVD and PVD Processes

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD).

Non Classical Crystallization of Thin Films and Nanostructures in CVD and PVD Processes

Author: Nong Moon Hwang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401776164

Page: 332

View: 160

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively involved in the growth of films or nanostructures. This new understanding is called the theory of charged nanoparticles (TCN). This book describes how the non-classical crystallization mechanism can be applied to the growth of thin films and nanostructures in gas phase synthesis. Based on the author’s graduate lecture course, the book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the field of thin film and nanostructure growth or crystal growth. It is hoped that a new understanding of the growth processes of thin films and nanostructures will reduce trial-and-error in research and in industrial fabrication processes.

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin ...

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

Author: Jaydeep Sarkar

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0815519877

Page: 608

View: 792

An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues. The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications. In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful. . Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc. Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology

With over 370 references, this is an excellent starting point for those who don’t want to reinvent the wheel. In particular, the book is a valuable reference for those interested in researching proposed or existing patents.

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology

Author: Donald M. Mattox

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540204107

Page: 150

View: 644

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology is a concise review of the developments that have led to the wide variety of applications of this technology. This book is a must for materials scientists and engineers working with vacuum coating in the invention of new technologies or applications in all industries. With over 370 references, this is an excellent starting point for those who don’t want to reinvent the wheel. In particular, the book is a valuable reference for those interested in researching proposed or existing patents. This unique book provides a starting point for more in-depth surveys of past and recent work in all aspects of vacuum coating. The author uses his extensive knowledge of the subject to draw comparisons and place the information into the proper context. This is particularly important for the patent literature where the terminology does not always match industry jargon. A section of acronyms for vacuum coating and glossary of terms at the end of the book are critical additions to the information every reader needs.

Handbook of Sputter Deposition Technology

All applications discussed are supported by theoretical discussions, offering readers both the "how" and the "why" of each technique. 40% revision: the new edition includes an entirely new team of contributing authors with backgrounds ...

Handbook of Sputter Deposition Technology

Author: Kiyotaka Wasa

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1437734839

Page: 644

View: 589

Sputtering is a Physical Vapor Deposition vacuum process used to deposit very thin films onto a substrate for a wide variety of commercial and scientific purposes. Sputtering occurs when an ionized gas molecule is used to displace atoms of a specific material. These atoms then bond at the atomic level to a substrate and create a thin film. Several types of sputtering processes exist, including: ion beam, diode, and magnetron sputtering. Cathode sputtering is widely used in the microelectronics industry for silicon integrated circuit production and for metallic coatings. High temperature, diamond films and ferroelectric materials are other applications. Sputtering applications are important across a wide range of industries, including the automotive, medical, semiconductors, space, plastics, and military sectors. A strong applications focus, covering current and emerging technologies, including nano-materials and MEMS (microelectrolmechanical systems) for energy, environments, communications, and/or bio-medical field. New chapters on computer simulation of sputtering and MEMS completes the update and insures that the new edition includes the most current and forward-looking coverage available. All applications discussed are supported by theoretical discussions, offering readers both the "how" and the "why" of each technique. 40% revision: the new edition includes an entirely new team of contributing authors with backgrounds specializing in the various new applications that are covered in the book and providing the most up-to-date coverage available anywhere.

Modern Technologies for Creating the Thin film Systems and Coatings

The 20 chapters of this book present the achievements of thin-film technology in many areas mentioned above but more than any other in medicine and biology and energy saving and energy efficiency.

Modern Technologies for Creating the Thin film Systems and Coatings

Author: Nikolay Nikitenkov

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 953513003X

Page: 444

View: 929

Development of the thin film and coating technologies (TFCT) made possible the technological revolution in electronics and through it the revolution in IT and communications in the end of the twentieth century. Now, TFCT penetrated in many sectors of human life and industry: biology and medicine; nuclear, fusion, and hydrogen energy; protection against corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement; jet engine; space materials science; and many others. Currently, TFCT along with nanotechnologies is the most promising for the development of almost all industries. The 20 chapters of this book present the achievements of thin-film technology in many areas mentioned above but more than any other in medicine and biology and energy saving and energy efficiency.

PVD for Microelectronics Sputter Desposition to Semiconductor Manufacturing

This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.

PVD for Microelectronics  Sputter Desposition to Semiconductor Manufacturing

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080542921

Page: 419

View: 295

Physics of Thin Films is one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science, consisting of 25 volumes since 1963. The series contains quality studies of the properties of various thin films materials and systems. In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films. This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.

Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings

Extensive material was added throughout the book, especially in the areas concerned with plasma-assisted vapor deposition processes and metallurgical coating applications.

Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings

Author: Peter M. Martin

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0815520328

Page: 936

View: 424

This 3e, edited by Peter M. Martin, PNNL 2005 Inventor of the Year, is an extensive update of the many improvements in deposition technologies, mechanisms, and applications. This long-awaited revision includes updated and new chapters on atomic layer deposition, cathodic arc deposition, sculpted thin films, polymer thin films and emerging technologies. Extensive material was added throughout the book, especially in the areas concerned with plasma-assisted vapor deposition processes and metallurgical coating applications. * Explains in depth the many recent i

Materials Science of Thin Films

This is the first book that can be considered a textbook on thin film science, complete with exercises at the end of each chapter.

Materials Science of Thin Films

Author: Milton Ohring

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0125249756

Page: 794

View: 922

This is the first book that can be considered a textbook on thin film science, complete with exercises at the end of each chapter. Ohring has contributed many highly regarded reference books to the AP list, including Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and the Engineering Science of Thin Films. The knowledge base is intended for science and engineering students in advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate level courses on thin films and scientists and engineers who are entering or require an overview of the field. Since 1992, when the book was first published, the field of thin films has expanded tremendously, especially with regard to technological applications. The second edition will bring the book up-to-date with regard to these advances. Most chapters have been greatly updated, and several new chapters have been added.

Rolling Contact Fatigue in a Vacuum

This book deals with wear and performance testing of thin solid film lubrication and hard coatings in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), a process which enables rapid accumulation of stress cycles compared with testing in oil at atmospheric ...

Rolling Contact Fatigue in a Vacuum

Author: Michael Danyluk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319119303

Page: 167

View: 667

This book deals with wear and performance testing of thin solid film lubrication and hard coatings in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), a process which enables rapid accumulation of stress cycles compared with testing in oil at atmospheric pressure. The authors’ lucid and authoritative narrative broadens readers' understanding of the benefits of UHV testing: a cleaner, shorter test is achieved in high vacuum, disturbance rejection by the deposition controller may be optimized for maximum fatigue life of the coating using rolling contact fatigue testing (RCF) in a high vacuum, and RCF testing in UHV conditions enables a faster study of deposition control parameters. In short, Rolling Contact Fatigue in a Vacuum is an indispensable resource for researchers and engineers concerned with thin film deposition, solar flat panel manufacturing, physical vapor deposition, MEMS manufacturing (for lubrication of MEMS), tribology in a range of industries, and automotive and marine wear coatings for engines and transmissions.

Physical vapor deposition and thermal stability of hard oxide coatings

This work increases the understanding of this complicated material system with respect to possible phases formed with pulsed DC magnetron sputtering deposition as well as their response to annealing in air.

Physical vapor deposition and thermal stability of hard oxide coatings

Author: Ludvig Landälv

Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press

ISBN: 9176850889

Page: 42

View: 902

The state-of-the-art tools for machining metals are primarily based on a metal-ceramic composite (WC-Co) coated with different combinations of carbide, nitride, and oxide coatings. Combinations of these coating materials are optimized to withstand specific wear conditions. Oxide coatings, mainly α-Al2O3, are especially desired because of their high hot-hardness, chemical inertness with respect to the workpiece, and their low friction. The search for possible alloy elements, which may facilitate the deposition of such oxides by means of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques, has been the goal of this thesis. The sought alloy should form thermodynamically stable or metastable compounds, compatible with the temperature of use in metal cutting application. This thesis deals with process development and coating characterization of such new oxide alloy thin films, focusing on the Al-V-O, Al-Cr-Si-O, and Cr-Zr-O systems. Alloying aluminum oxide with iso-valent vanadium is a candidate for forming the desired alloys. Therefore, coatings of (Al1-xVx)2O3, with x ranging from 0 to 1, were deposited with reactive sputter deposition. X-ray diffraction showed three different crystal structures depending on V-metal fraction in the coating: α-V2O3 rhombohedral structure for 100 at.% V, a defect spinel structure for the intermediate region, (63 - 42 at.% V), and a gamma-alumina-like solid solution at lower V-content, (18 and 7 at.%), were observed, the later was shifted to larger d-spacing compared to the pure γ-Al2O3 sample obtained if deposited with only Al-target. Annealing the Al-rich coatings in air resulted in formation of V2O5 crystals on the surface of the coating after annealing to 500 °C for 42 at.% V and 700 °C for 18 at.% V metal fraction respectively. The highest thermal stability was shown for pure γ-Al2O3-coating which transformed to α-Al2O3 after annealing to 1100° C. Highest hardness was observed for the Al-rich oxides, ~24 GPa. The hardness then decreases with increasing V-content, larger than 7 at.% V metal fraction. Doping the Al2O3 coating with 7 at.% V resulted in a significant surface smoothening compared to the binary oxide. The measured hardness after annealing in air decreased in conjunction with the onset of further oxidation of the coatings. This work increases the understanding of this complicated material system with respect to possible phases formed with pulsed DC magnetron sputtering deposition as well as their response to annealing in air. The inherent difficulties of depositing insulating oxide films with PVD, requiring a closed electrical circuit, makes the investigation of process stability an important part of this research. In this context, I investigated the influence of adding small amount of Si in Al-Cr cathode on the coating properties in a pulsed DC industrial cathodic arc system and the plasma characteristics, process parameters, and coating properties in a lab DC cathodic arc system. Si was chosen here due to a previous study showing improved erosion behavior of Al-Cr-Si over pure Al-Cr cathode without Si incorporation in the coating. The effect of Si in the Al-Cr cathode in the industrial cathodic arc system showed slight improvements on the cathode erosion but Si was found in all coatings where Si was added in the cathode. The Si addition promoted the formation of the B1-like metastable cubic oxide phase and the incorporation led to reduced or equal hardness values compared to the corresponding Si-free processes. The DC-arc plasma study on the same material system showed only small improvements in the cathode erosion and process stability (lower pressure and cathode voltage) when introducing 5 at.% Si in the Al70Cr30-cathode. The presence of volatile SiO species could be confirmed through plasma analysis, but the loss of Si through these species was negligible, since the coating composition matched the cathode composition also under these conditions. The positive effect of added Si on the process stability at the cathode surface, should be weighed against Si incorporation in the coating. This incorporation seems to lead to a reduction in mechanical properties in the as-deposited coatings and promote the formation of a B1-like cubic metastable oxide structure for the (Al,Cr)2O3 oxide. This formation may or may not be beneficial for the final application since literature indicates a slight stabilization of the metastable phase upon Si-incorporation, contrary to the effect of Cr, which stabilizes the α-phase. The thermal stability of alloys for metal cutting application is crucial for their use. Previous studies on another alloy system, Cr-Zr-O, had shown solid solution, for Cr-rich compositions in that material system, in the sought corundum structure. The thermal stability of α-Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coating deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF)-magnetron sputtering at 500 °C was therefore investigated here after annealing in vacuum up to 870 °C. The annealed samples showed transformation of α-(Cr,Zr)2O3 and amorphous ZrOx-rich areas into tetragonal ZrO2 and bcc-Cr. The instability of the α-(Cr,Zr)2O3 is surprising and possibly related to the annealing being done under vacuum, facilitating the loss of oxygen. Further in situ synchrotron XRD annealing studies on the α-Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coating in air and in vacuum showed increased stability for the air annealed sample up to at least 975 °C, accompanied with a slight increase in ex-situ measured nanohardness. The onset temperature for formation of tetragonal ZrO2 was similar to that for isothermally vacuum annealing. The synchrotron-vacuum annealed coating again decomposed into bcc-Cr and t-ZrO2, with an addition of monoclinic–ZrO2 due to grain growth. The stabilization of the room temperature metastable tetragonal ZrO2 phase, due to surface energy effects present with small grains sizes, may prove to be useful for metal cutting applications. The observed phase segregation of α-(Cr,Zr)2O3 and formation of tetragonal ZrO2 with corresponding increase in hardness for this pseudobinary oxide system also opens up design routes for pseudobinary oxides with tunable microstructural and mechanical properties.

Coatings and Thin Film Technologies

This book aims to provide the reader with a complete overview of the current state of applications and developments in thin-film technology, discussing applications, health and safety in thin films, and presenting reviews and experimental ...

Coatings and Thin Film Technologies

Author: Jaime Andres Perez Taborda

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 1789848709

Page: 286

View: 862

The field of coatings and thin-film technologies is rapidly advancing to keep up with new uses for semiconductor, optical, tribological, thermoelectric, solar, security, and smart sensing applications, among others. In this sense, thin-film coatings and structures are increasingly sophisticated with more specific properties, new geometries, large areas, the use of heterogeneous materials and flexible and rigid coating substrates to produce thin-film structures with improved performance and properties in response to new challenges that the industry presents. This book aims to provide the reader with a complete overview of the current state of applications and developments in thin-film technology, discussing applications, health and safety in thin films, and presenting reviews and experimental results of recognized experts in the area of coatings and thin-film technologies.

Sculptured Thin Films

This text, presented as a short course at the SPIE Optical Science and Technology Symposium, couples detailed knowledge of thin-film morphology with the optical response characteristics of STF devices.

Sculptured Thin Films

Author: Akhlesh Lakhtakia

Publisher: SPIE Press

ISBN: 9780819456069

Page: 299

View: 762

Sculptured thin films (STFs) are a class of nanoengineered materials with properties that can be designed and realized in a controllable manner using physical vapor deposition. This text, presented as a short course at the SPIE Optical Science and Technology Symposium, couples detailed knowledge of thin-film morphology with the optical response characteristics of STF devices. An accompanying CD contains Mathematica(TM) programs for use with the presented formalisms. Thus, readers will learn to design and engineer STF materials and devices for future applications, particularly with optical applications. Graduate students in optics and practicing optical engineers will find the text valuable, as well as those interested in emerging nanotechnologies for optical devices.