Overcoming Barriers to Electric Vehicle Deployment

Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment fulfills the request for the short interim report that addresses specifically the following issues: infrastructure needs for electric vehicles, barriers to deploying the infrastructure, and ...

Overcoming Barriers to Electric Vehicle Deployment

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309284511

Page: 80

View: 639

The electric vehicle offers many promises-increasing U.S. energy security by reducing petroleum dependence, contributing to climate-change initiatives by decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, stimulating long-term economic growth through the development of new technologies and industries, and improving public health by improving local air quality. There are, however, substantial technical, social, and economic barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles, including vehicle cost, small driving range, long charging times, and the need for a charging infrastructure. In addition, people are unfamiliar with electric vehicles, are uncertain about their costs and benefits, and have diverse needs that current electric vehicles might not meet. Although a person might derive some personal benefits from ownership, the costs of achieving the social benefits, such as reduced GHG emissions, are borne largely by the people who purchase the vehicles. Given the recognized barriers to electric-vehicle adoption, Congress asked the Department of Energy (DOE) to commission a study by the National Academies to address market barriers that are slowing the purchase of electric vehicles and hindering the deployment of supporting infrastructure. As a result of the request, the National Research Council (NRC)-a part of the National Academies-appointed the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment. This committee documented their findings in two reports-a short interim report focused on near-term options, and a final comprehensive report. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment fulfills the request for the short interim report that addresses specifically the following issues: infrastructure needs for electric vehicles, barriers to deploying the infrastructure, and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. This report also includes an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles. This interim report does not address the committee's full statement of task and does not offer any recommendations because the committee is still in its early stages of data-gathering. The committee will continue to gather and review information and conduct analyses through late spring 2014 and will issue its final report in late summer 2014. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment focuses on the light-duty vehicle sector in the United States and restricts its discussion of electric vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The common feature of these vehicles is that their batteries are charged by being plugged into the electric grid. BEVs differ from PHEVs because they operate solely on electricity stored in a battery (that is, there is no other power source); PHEVs have internal combustion engines that can supplement the electric power train. Although this report considers PEVs generally, the committee recognizes that there are fundamental differences between PHEVs and BEVs.

Overcoming Barriers to Electric vehicle Deployment

Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment fulfills the request for the short interim report that addresses specifically the following issues: infrastructure needs for electric vehicles, barriers to deploying the infrastructure, and ...

Overcoming Barriers to Electric vehicle Deployment

Author: Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780309284455

Page: 68

View: 527

Annotation The electric vehicle offers many promises-increasing U.S. energy security by reducing petroleum dependence, contributing to climate-change initiatives by decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, stimulating long-term economic growth through the development of new technologies and industries, and improving public health by improving local air quality. There are, however, substantial technical, social, and economic barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles, including vehicle cost, small driving range, long charging times, and the need for a charging infrastructure. In addition, people are unfamiliar with electric vehicles, are uncertain about their costs and benefits, and have diverse needs that current electric vehicles might not meet. Although a person might derive some personal benefits from ownership, the costs of achieving the social benefits, such as reduced GHG emissions, are borne largely by the people who purchase the vehicles. Given the recognized barriers to electric-vehicle adoption, Congress asked the Department of Energy (DOE) to commission a study by the National Academies to address market barriers that are slowing the purchase of electric vehicles and hindering the deployment of supporting infrastructure. As a result of the request, the National Research Council (NRC)-a part of the National Academies-appointed the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment. This committee documented their findings in two reports-a short interim report focused on near-term options, and a final comprehensive report. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment fulfills the request for the short interim report that addresses specifically the following issues: infrastructure needs for electric vehicles, barriers to deploying the infrastructure, and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. This report also includes an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles. This interim report does not address the committee's full statement of task and does not offer any recommendations because the committee is still in its early stages of data-gathering. The committee will continue to gather and review information and conduct analyses through late spring 2014 and will issue its final report in late summer 2014. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment focuses on the light-duty vehicle sector in the United States and restricts its discussion of electric vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The common feature of these vehicles is that their batteries are charged by being plugged into the electric grid. BEVs differ from PHEVs because they operate solely on electricity stored in a battery (that is, there is no other power source); PHEVs have internal combustion engines that can supplement the electric power train. Although this report considers PEVs generally, the committee recognizes that there are fundamental differences between PHEVs and BEVs.

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug in Electric Vehicles

Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug in Electric Vehicles

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309372208

Page: 152

View: 606

In the past few years, interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has grown. Advances in battery and other technologies, new federal standards for carbon-dioxide emissions and fuel economy, state zero-emission-vehicle requirements, and the current administration's goal of putting millions of alternative-fuel vehicles on the road have all highlighted PEVs as a transportation alternative. Consumers are also beginning to recognize the advantages of PEVs over conventional vehicles, such as lower operating costs, smoother operation, and better acceleration; the ability to fuel up at home; and zero tailpipe emissions when the vehicle operates solely on its battery. There are, however, barriers to PEV deployment, including the vehicle cost, the short all-electric driving range, the long battery charging time, uncertainties about battery life, the few choices of vehicle models, and the need for a charging infrastructure to support PEVs. What should industry do to improve the performance of PEVs and make them more attractive to consumers? At the request of Congress, Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles identifies barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles and recommends ways to mitigate these barriers. This report examines the characteristics and capabilities of electric vehicle technologies, such as cost, performance, range, safety, and durability, and assesses how these factors might create barriers to widespread deployment. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles provides an overview of the current status of PEVs and makes recommendations to spur the industry and increase the attractiveness of this promising technology for consumers. Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug in Electric Vehicles

Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug in Electric Vehicles

Author: Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780309372176

Page: 152

View: 610

In the past few years, interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has grown. Advances in battery and other technologies, new federal standards for carbon-dioxide emissions and fuel economy, state zero-emission-vehicle requirements, and the current administration's goal of putting millions of alternative-fuel vehicles on the road have all highlighted PEVs as a transportation alternative. Consumers are also beginning to recognize the advantages of PEVs over conventional vehicles, such as lower operating costs, smoother operation, and better acceleration; the ability to fuel up at home; and zero tailpipe emissions when the vehicle operates solely on its battery. There are, however, barriers to PEV deployment, including the vehicle cost, the short all-electric driving range, the long battery charging time, uncertainties about battery life, the few choices of vehicle models, and the need for a charging infrastructure to support PEVs. What should industry do to improve the performance of PEVs and make them more attractive to consumers? At the request of Congress, "Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles" identifies barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles and recommends ways to mitigate these barriers. This report examines the characteristics and capabilities of electric vehicle technologies, such as cost, performance, range, safety, and durability, and assesses how these factors might create barriers to widespread deployment. "Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles" provides an overview of the current status of PEVs and makes recommendations to spur the industry and increase the attractiveness of this promising technology for consumers. Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.

Electric Vehicles Prospects and Challenges

Considering the prospects, challenges and policy status of specific regions and vehicle deployment, the global case study references make this book useful for academics and researchers in all engineering and sustainable transport areas.

Electric Vehicles  Prospects and Challenges

Author: Tariq Muneer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128030402

Page: 586

View: 994

Electric Vehicles: Prospects and Challenges looks at recent design methodologies and technological advancements in electric vehicles and the integration of electric vehicles in the smart grid environment, comprehensively covering the fundamentals, theory and design, recent developments and technical issues involved with electric vehicles. Considering the prospects, challenges and policy status of specific regions and vehicle deployment, the global case study references make this book useful for academics and researchers in all engineering and sustainable transport areas. Presents a systematic and integrated reference on the essentials of theory and design of electric vehicle technologies Provides a comprehensive look at the research and development involved in the use of electric vehicle technologies Includes global case studies from leading EV regions, including Nordic and European countries China and India

Electric Vehicle Progress

The program may well prove a model for other states that wish to lay the
groundwork for an extensive electric vehicle infrastructure . The Vehicle ...
However , hydrogen poses significant obstacles to widespread fuel cell
deployment .

Electric Vehicle Progress

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 561

Electric Vehicles in the EU from 2010 to 2014 is Full Scale Commercialisation Near

We find that since 2010 the deployment of EV in the EU has gained momentum. The number of models offered as well as the size segment coverage of EV passenger cars has increased significantly from 2010 to 2014.

Electric Vehicles in the EU from 2010 to 2014   is Full Scale Commercialisation Near

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 9789279506406

Page: 36

View: 580

As a means of reducing the climate impact of transport as well as local air pollution, electrification of the road vehicle fleet is a much-discussed option. In the past years, many electric vehicle models have been introduced to the EU market. On the basis of the monitoring databases for the implementation of Regulation EC No 443/2009 and Regulation EU No 510/2011 we have analysed EV deployment in the EU in the past five years. We find that since 2010 the deployment of EV in the EU has gained momentum. The number of models offered as well as the size segment coverage of EV passenger cars has increased significantly from 2010 to 2014. The number of registrations and also the EV share, albeit still small compared to the total vehicle market, has increased steadily in the EU. This trend continued in the first half of 2015. The demand for EV has been fostered by various incentive schemes in different EU member states (MS).^The numbers of EV registrations and market shares in the MS align well with the level of financial support for EV buyers. This seems to indicate that policies remain to be needed in order to overcome market barriers for the EV deployment at this moment in time. When comparing EV deployment in Europe to other regions of the world, we find that EV market shares in Europe are more or less on par with those in the US and Japan. From an industrial policy perspective, it is encouraging that the share of EV manufactured in the EU has increased from roughly 30% in 2011 to approximately 65% in 2014. As an overall conclusion we can state that indeed the EU seems to currently witness a transition from testing and experimenting with EV towards full scale EV commercialisation. Nevertheless, the beginning market deployment is still dependent on support policies and vulnerable to changes in support.^For the coming years it will be important to accompany the EV market deployment with carefully designed policy measures that should gradually be phased out when EV become a mainstream option.

Electric Vehicles in the EU from 2010 to 2014 is Full Scale Commercialisation Near

We find that since 2010 the deployment of EV in the EU has gained momentum. The number of models offered as well as the size segment coverage of EV passenger cars has increased significantly from 2010 to 2014.

Electric Vehicles in the EU from 2010 to 2014   is Full Scale Commercialisation Near

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 9789279506413

Page: 36

View: 768

As a means of reducing the climate impact of transport as well as local air pollution, electrification of the road vehicle fleet is a much-discussed option. In the past years, many electric vehicle models have been introduced to the EU market. On the basis of the monitoring databases for the implementation of Regulation EC No 443/2009 and Regulation EU No 510/2011 we have analysed EV deployment in the EU in the past five years. We find that since 2010 the deployment of EV in the EU has gained momentum. The number of models offered as well as the size segment coverage of EV passenger cars has increased significantly from 2010 to 2014. The number of registrations and also the EV share, albeit still small compared to the total vehicle market, has increased steadily in the EU. This trend continued in the first half of 2015. The demand for EV has been fostered by various incentive schemes in different EU member states (MS).^The numbers of EV registrations and market shares in the MS align well with the level of financial support for EV buyers. This seems to indicate that policies remain to be needed in order to overcome market barriers for the EV deployment at this moment in time. When comparing EV deployment in Europe to other regions of the world, we find that EV market shares in Europe are more or less on par with those in the US and Japan. From an industrial policy perspective, it is encouraging that the share of EV manufactured in the EU has increased from roughly 30% in 2011 to approximately 65% in 2014. As an overall conclusion we can state that indeed the EU seems to currently witness a transition from testing and experimenting with EV towards full scale EV commercialisation. Nevertheless, the beginning market deployment is still dependent on support policies and vulnerable to changes in support.^For the coming years it will be important to accompany the EV market deployment with carefully designed policy measures that should gradually be phased out when EV become a mainstream option.

Technology Planning for Aligning Emerging Business Models and Regulatory Structures

Smart grid has been described as the Energy Internet: Where Energy Technology meets Information Technology.

Technology Planning for Aligning Emerging Business Models and Regulatory Structures

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 376

View: 742

Smart grid has been described as the Energy Internet: Where Energy Technology meets Information Technology. The incorporation of such technology into vast existing utility infrastructures offers many advantages, including possibilities for new smart appliances, energy management systems, better integration of renewable energy, value added services, and new business models, both for supply- and demand-side management. Smart grid also replaces aging utility technologies that are becoming increasingly unreliable, as the average ages for many critical components in utility systems now exceed their original design lives. However, while smart grid offers the promise of revolutionizing utility delivery systems, many questions remain about how such systems can be rolled out at the state, regional, and national levels. Many unique regulatory and market structure challenges exist, which makes it critical to pick the right technology for the right situation and to employ it in the right manner. Technology Roadmapping may be a valuable approach for helping to understand factors that could affect smart grid technology and product development, as well as key business, policy and regulatory drivers. As emerging smart grid technologies are developed and the fledgling industry matures, a critical issue will be understanding how the combination of industry drivers impact one another, what barriers exist to achieving the benefits of smart grid technologies, and how to prioritize R&D and acquisition efforts. Since the planning of power grids often relies on regional factors, it will also be important investigate linkages between smart grid deployment and regional planning goals. This can be used to develop strategies for overcoming barriers and achieving the benefits of this promising new technology. This research builds upon existing roadmapping processes by considering an integrated set of factors, including policy issues, which are specifically tuned to the needs of smart grids and have not generally been considered in other types of roadmapping efforts. It will also incorporate expert judgment quantification to prioritize factors, show the pathways for overcoming barriers and achieving benefits, and discussing the most promising strategies for achieving these goals.

A Socio technical Analysis of Widespread Electric Vehicle Adoption

A combination of high fuel costs, concerns about petroleum availability, and environmental issues associated with conventional vehicles powered by fossil fuels are driving interests in electric vehicles (EVs).

A Socio technical Analysis of Widespread Electric Vehicle Adoption

Author: Onanwa Nneka Egbue

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 113

View: 352

A combination of high fuel costs, concerns about petroleum availability, and environmental issues associated with conventional vehicles powered by fossil fuels are driving interests in electric vehicles (EVs). Large-scale deployment of EVs can play a significant role in addressing some of these problems. In spite of the benefits of EVs, several obstacles need to be overcome before EVs will be widely adopted. This research focuses on two socio-technical issues that affect widespread adoption and sustainability of EVs, consumer attitudes and perceptions, and supply chain risks of raw materials for EV battery technology. A major barrier is that consumers tend to resist new technologies that are considered unproved, thus, engineering and policy decisions that consider their critical concerns will have a higher level of success. This research identifies potential socio-technical barriers to consumer adoption of EVs and determines if sustainability issues influence consumer decision to purchase an EV. In addition, this study employs statistical analysis to provide valuable insights into preferences and perceptions of technology enthusiasts. The second part of this research focuses on a supply chain analysis of lithium, which is a major raw material for lithium-ion batteries used in EVs. This research identifies potential issues with the security and supply of lithium for production of lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, this study develops a supply chain model with which to investigate the technical, geopolitical, and economic factors that influence the supply of lithium through different life cycle stages. Finally, this research conducts a bibliometric analysis of the EV research and proposes some policy and research actions to advance the technology.

Final Report to Governor Pat Quinn and the Illinois General Assembly

Electric Vehicle Advisory Council. Final Report F. Conclusion The
recommendations in this report provide a roadmap for supporting the broad
deployment of EVs in Illinois . ... Governor , and other stakeholders must act now ,
as recommended in this report , to prepare for EVs and overcome initial barriers
to EV adoption .

Final Report to Governor Pat Quinn and the Illinois General Assembly

Author: Illinois. Electric Vehicle Advisory Council

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 38

View: 763

Strategies for Transportation Electric Fuel Implementation in California Overcoming Battery First cost Hurdles

Executive Summary Background Electric - fuel vehicles are experiencing a
renaissance , based on several factors ... Policy drivers ( in addition to
California's longstanding and evolving Zero Emission Vehicle “ mandate , " these
include the Global ... spurring commercialization through policy support of lower -
cost , lower - barrier technologies — for example , small ... in hybrids with
shortened battery deployment - may lead to easier and quicker adoption of
electric - fuel technologies .

Strategies for Transportation Electric Fuel Implementation in California   Overcoming Battery First cost Hurdles

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 65

View: 396

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80 percent across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309268524

Page: 394

View: 537

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns about petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80 percent across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. This report examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, and effective policies such as research and development, subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers, such as cost and consumer choice.

Energy Policy

Policies could include coordinating auto - manufacturers and electric utilities to
overcome infrastructural barriers , setting standards for interconnection ,
facilitating or funding early deployment of some EDV power connections to gain ...

Energy Policy

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 800

Market Oriented Program Planning Study MOPPS

Nuclear • Ensuring that conventional nuclear technology can overcome
perceptions of environmental , proliferation , or other ... The nuclear share should
depend on whether technological , economic or environmental factors adversely
affect deployment of advanced non - nuclear technologies . ... Electric vehicles
are projected to penetrate intra - city auto use significantly by 2000. ... Institutional
research is needed to overcome barriers to the adoption of conservation
measures .

Market Oriented Program Planning Study  MOPPS

Author: United States. Energy Research and Development Administration

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page:

View: 210

Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries.

Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

Author: Jeremy Neubauer

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 81

View: 747

Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.