The second edition of Measuring Market Risk provides an extensive treatment of the state of the art in market risk measurement.
Author: Kevin Dowd
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Fully revised and restructured, Measuring Market Risk, Second Edition includes a new chapter on options risk management, as well as substantial new information on parametric risk, non-parametric measurements and liquidity risks, more practical information to help with specific calculations, and new examples including Q&A’s and case studies.
"This book, Measuring Market Risk with Value at Risk by Vipul Bansal and Pietro Penza, has three advantages over earlier works on the subject.
Author: Pietro Penza
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
"This book, Measuring Market Risk with Value at Risk by Vipul Bansal and Pietro Penza, has three advantages over earlier works on the subject. First, it takes a decidedly global approach-an essential ingredient for any comprehensive work on market risk. Second, it ties the scientifically grounded, yet intuitively appealing, VaR measure to earlier, more idiosyncratic measures of market risk that are used in specific market environs (e.g., duration in fixed income). Finally, it encompasses all of the accepted approaches to calculating a VaR measure and presents them in a clearly explained fashion with supporting illustrations and completely worked-out examples." -from the Foreword by John F. Marshall, PhD, Principal, Marshall, Tucker & Associates, LLC "Measuring Market Risk with Value at Risk offers a much-needed intellectual bridge, a translation from the esoteric realm of mathematical finance to the domain of financial managers who seek guidance in applying developments from this important field of research as well as that of MBA-level graduate instruction. I believe the authors have done a commendable job of providing a carefully crafted, highly readable, and most useful work, and intend to recommend it to all those involved in business risk management applications." -Anthony F. Herbst, PhD, Professor of Finance and C.R. and D.S. Carter Chair, The University of Texas, El Paso and Founding editor of The Journal of Financial Engineering (1991-1998) "Finally there's a book that strikes a balance between rigor and application in the area of risk management in the banking industry. This innovative book is a MUST for both novices and professionals alike." -Robert P. Yuyuenyongwatana, PhD, Associate Professor of Finance, Cameron University "Measuring Market Risk with Value at Risk is one of the most complete discussions of this emerging topic in finance that I have seen. The authors develop a logical and rigorous framework for using VaR models, providing both historical references and analytical applications." -Kevin Wynne, PhD, Associate Professor of Finance, Lubin School of Business, Pace University
Covers the subject without advanced or exotic material. This book provides an introduction to Value at Risk (VaR) and expected tail loss (ETL) estimation and is a student-oriented version of Measuring Market Risk (John Wiley & Sons 2002).
Author: Kevin Dowd
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Includes a CD-ROM that contains Excel workbooks and a Matlab manual and software. Covers the subject without advanced or exotic material.
This is one of the keys to integrated risk measurement and is a critical component in measuring risk-adjusted profitability and setting prices to customers. A typical balance sheet is used to illustrate how transfer pricing works in detail.
Author: Christopher Marrison
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: The Basics of Risk Management This chapter introduces how banks work. It describes how they make money, how they often lose money, and how they try to manage their losses. It includes thirteen short case studies showing how banks have lost money. Chapter 2: Risk Measurement at the Corporate Level: Economic Capital and RAROC Chapter Two discusses the meaning of capital and how the risks that a bank faces are related to the amount of capital that the bank should hold. It then describes the two fundamental building blocks of integrated risk measurement: Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Return on Capital (RAROC). Chapter 3: Review of Statistics Chapter Three is useful for those readers who do not have a recent working knowledge of statistics. It reviews the statistical relationships that are commonly used in risk measurement and provides reference material for the rest of the book. Examples are provided using financial loss data. MARKET RISK SECTION Chapter 4: Background on Traded Instruments This chapter gives an overview of the main types of traded instruments: bonds, equities and derivatives. It gives a qualitative description of the instrument, examples of calculating the instrument’s value and the basic risk metrics such as duration and the Greeks. This chapter is useful for those readers who are new to the finance industry. Chapter 5: Market Risk Measurement This chapter describes the most common ways to measure market risks: Sensitivity analysis, Stress testing, Scenario testing, Sharpe Ratio and Value at Risk. It gives detailed examples of using each of the metrics. Chapter 6: The Three Common Approaches for Calculating Value at Risk Value at Risk (VaR) has become the standard approach for measuring market risk. This chapter is devoted to explaining the details of the three common approaches to calculating VaR: Parametric VaR, Historical VaR and Monte Carlo VaR. We work though increasingly complex examples and compare the strengths of each approach. (Note: many readers will be particularly interested in this chapter because the name “VaR” is well known and has a certain mystery) Chapter 7: Value at Risk Contribution The Value at Risk Contribution (VaRC) is a useful way of pinpointing the source of the portfolio’s risk. VaRC can break down the risk by instrument, trading desk or market risk factor. Examples are given for several types of VaRC. Chapter 8: Testing VaR Results to Ensure Proper Risk Measurement This chapter discusses the procedures required by regulators to backtest VaR calculators to check that their predictions of losses are consistent with market events. Chapter 9: Calculating Capital for Market Risk VaR is used as the basis for calculating both Regulatory Capital and Economic Capital for Market Risks. In this chapter VaR also extended to measure the risk of Asset Management operations. Chapter 10: Overcoming VaR Limitations Although VaR is the best single metric for market risks, is has several limitations. The limitations and typical solutions are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 11: The Management of Market Risk This chapter concludes the market risk section by describing how the results of risk measurement are used by management to identify the sources of risk. It also describes the process of setting VaR Limits. (Note: readers should be particularly interested in VaR Limits because it is difficult and an important element in controlling a bank’s risk). ASSET/LIABILITY MANGEMENT SECTION Chapter 12: Introduction to Asset Liability Management Asset Liability Management (ALM) is primarily concerned with the interest rate and liquidity risks that are created when commercial banks take in short term deposits from customers and give out long term loans. This chapter describes how those risks arise and the risk characteristics of different types of deposits and loans. Chapter 13: Measurement of Interest Rate Risk for ALM This chapter discussed the primary techniques used to measure interest rate risk: Gap reports, Rate shift scenarios and Simulations Chapter 14: Funding Liquidity Risk in ALM The measurement of liquidity risk is broken into three groups: expected, unusual and crisis events. Measurement techniques are given for each group. Chapter 15: Funds Transfer Pricing and the Management of ALM Risks A key use of asset/liability measurement is the calculation of the fair price at which funds should be lent from one department to another within a bank. This is one of the keys to integrated risk measurement and is a critical component in measuring risk-adjusted profitability and setting prices to customers. A typical balance sheet is used to illustrate how transfer pricing works in detail. CREDIT RISK SECTION Chapter 16: Introduction to Credit Risk This chapter discusses the sources of credit risk and how measurement is used to manage the risks Chapter 17: Types of Credit Structure For readers who are unfamiliar with lending operations, we discuss the ways that credit exposures are structured in commercial and retail lending. It also describes the calculation of credit exposure for derivatives trading operations and gives an overview of credit derivatives. Chapter 18: Risk Measurement for a Single Facility This chapter shows how the Expected Loss and Unexpected Loss for a loan can be calculated from the Probability of Default, Loss In the Event of Default, Exposure at Default and the Grade Migration Matrix. Chapter 19: Estimating Parameter Values for Single Facilities One of the main difficulties in credit risk measurement is the estimation of values for Probability of Default, Loss Given Default and Exposure at Default. This chapter discusses estimation techniques such as Discriminant Analysis and the Merton Model. It also gives parameter values that can be used as the basis for the reader’s own models. The parameter values are used in examples to demonstrate how the credit risk calculations are used. Chapter 20: Risk Measurement For A Credit Portfolio: Part One To estimate the overall risk for a portfolio many credit instruments, we must examine the correlation between losses. This chapter describes the Covariance Credit Portfolio Model and the different approaches available for estimating default correlations. It also describes how the correlations can be used to estimate the Unexpected Loss Contribution and the Economic Capital for a single facility within a portfolio. Chapter 21: Risk Measurement For A Credit Portfolio: Part Two This chapter describes the four other widely used approaches for estimating the risk of credit portfolios: the actuarial model, the Merton-based simulation model, the macro economic default model and the macro economic cashflow model used for structured and project finance. It concludes with a section describing how the models can be combined in a unified framework to create an integrated simulation of all the bank’s risks Chapter 22: Risk Adjusted Performance and Pricing for Loans Knowing the economic capital for a loan, this chapter shows how to calculate the minimum price that should be charged to a loan customer. The analysis shows how to include multi-year effects such as grade migration. Illustrative examples are included. (Note: this chapter should be of interest to readers because loan pricing is another difficult and important subject that is rarely discussed in other books) Chapter 23: Regulatory Capital for Credit Risk The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (often called the BIS) is planning fundamental changes to the way that banks must calculate the capital that they hold. The new calculations will be very similar to the calculations described in the rest of this book for economic capital. This chapter summarizes the history of the Capital Accords then compares the different approaches that the BIS will allow. It also gives a standard plan for implementing the new Accords. (Note: this should be of interest to readers because the shift to BIS measurement is of major importance, it will be difficult for most banks, and it must be completed by 2005) OPERATING RISK SECTION Chapter 24: Operating risk The quantification of Operating Risks is on the frontier of the industry’s understanding of risk measurement. The risk estimation approaches can be categorized as either qualitative, structural or actuarial. These approaches are described including Key Risk Indicators and the BIS approaches. INTEGRATED RISK SECTION Chapter 25: Inter-risk Diversification and Bank-Level RAROC This chapter describes how all the models are linked to calculate Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Profitability for the Bank as a whole. It concludes with of the steps normally required to implement the bank-wide measurement of Economic Capital and RAROC.pital and RAROC.
This timely book sets out a clear, logical approach to the measurement of price risk positions using the techniques of factor sensitivity analysis and 'value at risk', illustrated with straightforward numerical examples.
Author: David Emrus Lawrence
Publisher: Thomson Learning
Recent well-publicised losses on the derivatives markets have highlighted the need for a much closer understanding of the price risk involved, not just among the specialists but at all levels within financial institutions and end-user companies. This timely book sets out a clear, logical approach to the measurement of price risk positions using the techniques of factor sensitivity analysis and 'value at risk', illustrated with straightforward numerical examples. It will be an essential guide to a key area of risk management.
Recommendation 4 : Identifying Revenue Sources Dealers should measure the
components of revenue regularly and in sufficient detail to understand the
sources of risk . Recommendation 5 : Measuring Market Risk Dealers should use
Author: Don M. Chance
Publisher: South-Western Pub
Detailed but flexible coverage of options, futures, forwards, swaps, and risk management ? as well as a solid introduction to pricing, trading, and strategy - allows instructors to selectively tailor inclusion of topics/chapters to fit the length of the course. Detailed but flexible coverage of options, futures, forwards, swaps, and risk management ? as well as a solid introduction to pricing, trading, and strategy - allows instructors to selectively tailor inclusion of topics/chapters to fit the length of the course.
The first edition offered a remarkably clear, 'big picture' perspective. This edition expands and updates the topics covered.
Author: Anthony Saunders
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The most cutting-edge read on the pricing, modeling, and management of credit risk available The rise of credit risk measurement and the credit derivatives market started in the early 1990s and has grown ever since. For many professionals, understanding credit risk measurement as a discipline is now more important than ever. Credit Risk Measurement, Second Edition has been fully revised to reflect the latest thinking on credit risk measurement and to provide credit risk professionals with a solid understanding of the alternative approaches to credit risk measurement. This readable guide discusses the latest pricing, modeling, and management techniques available for dealing with credit risk. New chapters highlight the latest generation of credit risk measurement models, including a popular class known as intensity-based models. Credit Risk Measurement, Second Edition also analyzes significant changes in banking regulations that are impacting credit risk measurement at financial institutions. With fresh insights and updated information on the world of credit risk measurement, this book is a must-read reference for all credit risk professionals. Anthony Saunders (New York, NY) is the John M. Schiff Professor of Finance and Chair of the Department of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University. He holds positions on the Board of Academic Consultants of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors as well as the Council of Research Advisors for the Federal National Mortgage Association. He is the editor of the Journal of Banking and Finance and the Journal of Financial Markets, Instruments and Institutions. Linda Allen (New York, NY) is Professor of Finance at Baruch College and Adjunct Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University. She also is author of Capital Markets and Institutions: A Global View (Wiley: 0471130494). Over the years, financial professionals around the world have looked to the Wiley Finance series and its wide array of bestselling books for the knowledge, insights, and techniques that are essential to success in financial markets. As the pace of change in financial markets and instruments quickens, Wiley Finance continues to respond. With critically acclaimed books by leading thinkers on value investing, risk management, asset allocation, and many other critical subjects, the Wiley Finance series provides the financial community with information they want. Written to provide professionals and individuals with the most current thinking from the best minds in the industry, it is no wonder that the Wiley Finance series is the first and last stop for financial professionals looking to increase their financial expertise.
When measuring market size and market share , PIMS с E uses the " served
market " concept , acknowledging that a business may elect to serve only certain
customers in certain markets . While this measurement may be very useful if ...
We give simple examples of linear programs which use many iterations for the simplex algorithm, emphasizing an algebraic point of view.
This is because it makes little or no use of individual public financial statement data, which would make risk measurements for individual banks possible.
Author: Matthew Lloyd Birmingham
ABSTRACT: Regulators are interested in measurements of market risk, particularly interest rate risk (IRR), which can be applied to many institutions at once. This paper reviews methods of measuring market risk using publicly available information and empirically evaluates a model combining several methods along with proxies of the CAMELS system of bank rating. The popular CAPM beta measurement of risk, which can include both equity market and interest rate risks, has very limited applicability. This is because it makes little or no use of individual public financial statement data, which would make risk measurements for individual banks possible. A duration-based method of IRR exists that is applicable to all banks because it uses individual Call Report data. This study combines that IRR measurement with public financial statement proxies for individual CAMELS ratings and general market price data. We find this combined CAMELS-CAPM model may be used to measure stock price risk as a combination of cash-flow and insolvency risks. Panel data from 146 publicly traded banks over the last ten years is used.
16. and liabilities. Marking to market should be implemented regardless of the
accounting method used. 5. to calculate daily the market risk of their position,
which is best measured with a VAR approach. Once a method of risk
measurement is ...
Author: Philippe Jorion
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
This chapter comes from Value at Risk, the industry standard in risk management. Now in its Third Edition, this international bestseller addresses the fundamental changes in the field that have occurred across the globe in recent years. Philippe Jorion provides the most current information needed to understand and implement VAR-as well as manage newer dimensions of financial risk.
The proposed market-risk capital-adequacy framework, to be implemented at the end of 1997, requires Australian banks to hold capital against market risk.
Author: Colleen Cassidy
The proposed market-risk capital-adequacy framework, to be implemented at the end of 1997, requires Australian banks to hold capital against market risk. A fundamental component of this framework is the opportunity for banks to use their value-at-risk (VaR) models as the basis of the market-risk capital charge. Value-at-risk measures the potential loss on a portfolio for a specified level of confidence if adverse movements in market prices were to occur. This paper examines the VaR measure and some of the techniques available for assessing the performance of a VaR model. The first section of the paper uses a simple portfolio of two spot foreign exchange positions to illustrate three of the approaches used in the calculation of a VaR measure: variance-covariance, historical simulation and Monte-Carlo simulation. It is concluded that, although VaR is a very useful tool, it is not without its shortcomings and so should be supplemented with other risk-management techniques. The second section of the paper focuses on the use of backtesting the comparison of model-generated VaR numbers with actual profits and losses for assessing the accuracy of a VaR model. Several statistical tests are demonstrated by testing daily VaR and profit and loss data obtained from an Australian bank. The paper concludes that, although the tests are not sufficiently precise to form the basis of regulatory treatment of banks' VaR results, the tests do provide useful diagnostic information for evaluating model performance.