Shane Greenstein traces the evolution of the Internet from government ownership to privatization to the commercial Internet we know today. This is a story of innovation from the edges.
Author: Shane Greenstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
In less than a decade, the Internet went from being a series of loosely connected networks used by universities and the military to the powerful commercial engine it is today. This book describes how many of the key innovations that made this possible came from entrepreneurs and iconoclasts who were outside the mainstream—and how the commercialization of the Internet was by no means a foregone conclusion at its outset. Shane Greenstein traces the evolution of the Internet from government ownership to privatization to the commercial Internet we know today. This is a story of innovation from the edges. Greenstein shows how mainstream service providers that had traditionally been leaders in the old-market economy became threatened by innovations from industry outsiders who saw economic opportunities where others didn't—and how these mainstream firms had no choice but to innovate themselves. New models were tried: some succeeded, some failed. Commercial markets turned innovations into valuable products and services as the Internet evolved in those markets. New business processes had to be created from scratch as a network originally intended for research and military defense had to deal with network interconnectivity, the needs of commercial users, and a host of challenges with implementing innovative new services. How the Internet Became Commercial demonstrates how, without any central authority, a unique and vibrant interplay between government and private industry transformed the Internet.
Economic Value of the Advertising Supported Internet Ecosystem . Interactive
Advertising Bureau . https : // www ... Policy and the Economy 1 : 151-186 . 2015.
How the Internet Became Commercial : Innovation , Privatization , and the ...
Author: Rikke Frank Jørgensen
Publisher: MIT Press
Scholars from across law and internet and media studies examine the human rights implications of today's platform society. Today such companies as Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter play an increasingly important role in how users form and express opinions, encounter information, debate, disagree, mobilize, and maintain their privacy. What are the human rights implications of an online domain managed by privately owned platforms? According to the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, adopted by the UN Human Right Council in 2011, businesses have a responsibility to respect human rights and to carry out human rights due diligence. But this goal is dependent on the willingness of states to encode such norms into business regulations and of companies to comply. In this volume, contributors from across law and internet and media studies examine the state of human rights in today's platform society. The contributors consider the “datafication” of society, including the economic model of data extraction and the conceptualization of privacy. They examine online advertising, content moderation, corporate storytelling around human rights, and other platform practices. Finally, they discuss the relationship between human rights law and private actors, addressing such issues as private companies' human rights responsibilities and content regulation. Contributors Anja Bechmann, Fernando Bermejo, Agnès Callamard, Mikkel Flyverbom, Rikke Frank Jørgensen, Molly K. Land, Tarlach McGonagle, Jens-Erik Mai, Joris van Hoboken, Glen Whelan, Jillian C. York, Shoshana Zuboff, Ethan Zuckerman Open access edition published with generous support from Knowledge Unlatched and the Danish Council for Independent Research.
Internet Development of the Internet As PCs became more powerful , affordable ,
and available during the 1980s , firms ... Since the National Science Foundation (
NSF ) prohibited commercial network traffic on the networks it funded ...
Author: James T. Perry
Part of the Illustrated Series, this text offers a quick, visual, and step-by-step approach for learning about the Internet, including such topics as: e-mail, browsing, searching, accessing Newsgroups, and customizing information from the World Wide Web.
OL commercial implementations of MPEG - 1 , including special chips that
implemented it and supported the MP3 part of ... 1997 TO THE PRESENT :
COMMERCIAL EFFORTS If you recall , the Internet became extremely popular in
1996 and ...
Author: Damien Stolarz
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
Provides information on Internet video, covering such topics as compression, formats, servers, software, networking, multicasting, and video editing.
From a business point of view , a major turning point occurred in 1991 when fully
commercial Internet connections became available . First , the Commercial
Internet Exchange Association ( CIX ) was established specifically to provide a ...
Author: Mary J. Cronin
Publisher: New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold
Offers practical, real-life insights on: putting the Internet to work, new avenues of consumer support; product development, and marketing power; transforming research and development; entrepreneurial opportunities on the Internet; Internet access, business resources, and much more.
Internet The Internet is made up of more than 100 , 000 interconnected networks
in over 100 countries , composed of commercial , academic , and government
networks . Originally developed for the military , the Internet became widely used
Author: Laverne Warner
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
Catering to the first time teacher, the authors provide day to day challenges of what it means to teach young children in the classroom, while fostering a mentoring environment for pre-service teachers entering the field. Chapter 4 addresses children with special needs and commonly used modifications for each of the disabilities. A unique chapter on teaching fourth graders (chapter 10) has been included that may be covered or skipped, depending upon state requirements. Lesson planning is emphasized throughout and sample lesson plans and mini-lessons have been included for every grade level and subject area.
38 In Habermas ' view , the structural transformation of the press from a public -
oriented to a commercial - oriented public sphere institution is critical . On the one
hand , to the extent that the press became commercialized , the threshold ...
Author: Joseph W. Roberts
This book examines the socio-economic and socio-political factors that make modern information technology a useful and viable tool for expatriate political and social movements in dealing with the rigid state control of the traditional media in the Middle East.
There was a strong spirit of collegiality in the early days , but as the Internet
became more commercial in nature , these processes took on a new meaning .
As a result , a number of these collaborations developed into formal
Author: Scott W. Pink
Publisher: Prima Lifestyles
"The proliferation of e-commerce has created an overwhelming number of laws that govern online business. From data collection, encryption, and intellectual property to personal privacy, libel, and international trade, you and your company must carefully navigate a tangled web of new regulations to build real value through your e-commerce strategies." "The Internet & E-Commerce Legal Handbook answers all your questions and guides you easily through the legal issues of conducting business online. Whether you're a corporate attorney or a small-business owner, a CIO or a Web designer, you'll find yourself consulting this approachable, up-to-date resource every day to ensure the security, safety, and profitability of your online initiatives. Inside, e-commerce law expert and attorney Scott W. Pink gives you comprehensive information on the court rulings, regulations, and protocols that affect you - without all the legal jargon - and makes your rights and responsibilities clear." "Complete with standard legal forms you can use, a complete glossary of Internet and e-commerce terminology, and special sections for attorneys with case studies and statutes, this book takes the guess work out of building a bulletproof online business."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
computers existed and at the same time the Internet was developed. As personal
computers became more ... In 1995, America Online became the largest
commercial online service with over six million members. Initally, CompuServe
was an ...
Author: Rob Tidrow
Publisher: Prima Lifestyles
Discusses choosing a service provider, protecting against viruses and hackers, using a browser, and meeting people online
Figure 1-4 Department of Defense ( DOD ) NETWORKS THAT BECAME THE
INTERNET National Science Foundation ... university networks Internet
Commercial Interest Increases As PCs became more powerful , affordable , and
Author: James T. Perry
Part of our New Perspectives Series, this text offers a case-oriented, problem-solving approach for learning the basic to more advanced features of the Internet -- from browsing, navigating, and searching on the Internet, to using e-mail, advanced communication tools and other Web topics.
8 is even better ) networks were commercial : August 1991 You can access the
Internet in 4 ways : directly ; with a Amount of ... began to participate , and the
name Internet became an online haven for computer jocks , recom a commercial
Author: Robert Famighetti
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
An annually updated reference guide to a wide variety of facts and information about the United States and the other countries around the world.
A direct connection to the Internet ( for example , through an ISP ) is faster . Cost
Startup in many cases is free , and rates are reasonable . Over the past several
years , as commercial services became more popular and competition heated up
Author: Constance D. Williams
Publisher: Libraries Unlimited Incorporated
Beginner's guide to using the Internet, geared toward educators, parents, librarians, and researchers, with information explaining what the Internet is and how it works, and instructions for quick access to the World Wide Web, FTP, gopher, telnet, and other Internet systems.
Started by a Defense Advanced Research Project Agency ( DARPA ) project , the
logical outcome of work going back to the 1960s , the Internet became available
for commercial use in the mid - 1990s . In the intervening years since then , it ...
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
The sign of a smart IS decision… The sign of a smart decision about information systems isn’t based on technical details alone; it’s based on how well that decision contributes to the overall success of the business. If you want to make your firm’s investment in IS really pay off, you need to approach IS from a truly managerial perspective. Now with Paul Gray’s Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions About IS, you’ll learn how IS can help the organization as a whole, and how to make key decisions on whether to undertake, upgrade, or decommission large software systems. You’ll also learn about the capabilities of IS, such as the many uses of a data warehouse and using IS to gain competitive intelligence. See the big picture. The Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions About IS first focuses on big picture issues, such as hardware, software, and the Internet; strategic uses of IS; aligning IS with the business; types of applications; and inter-organizational systems. Make decisions on big-ticket applications. Gray then provides you with essential knowledge that will help you make informed decisions on big-ticket applications, including electronic commerce, enterprise requirements planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), data warehousing, knowledge management, and business intelligence. Explore current IS issues. Finally, the Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions About IS examines the IS issues that managers are currently facing in today’s business, including outsourcing, systems integration, supply chain, people issues, mergers and acquisitions, infrastructure, and privacy, security, and ethics. Armed with this knowledge, you’ll have the confidence and understanding you need to sign-off on IS decisions that will have a valuable impact on your organization.
As commercial content producers became involved with the Internet ,
engineering solutions began to focus on making it easier to sell products and
services online , rather than on linking computers for education and research as
Author: Jan Samoriski
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
"This book explores the problems facing society in the rapidly changing online environment, including the technical, social, and legal factors shaping the Internet today." Issues in Cyberspace provides an overview of the evolution of the Internet, the media interests that are driving its development, and the boundaries that are being established for online behavior in a variety of contexts. Issues discussed throughout the book include the influence of concentrated ownership, the First Amendment, commercialism, spam, privacy, encryption, hacking, copyright, libel, hate speech, indecency, obscenity, education, and global implications." Designed for those interested in Internet Studies as well as Communication Law and Policy studies.
The EU and Internet commerce regulation come to occupy a For the EU , the
emer hallenges in a nu One of the most significant incentives to broaden and
eventually to universalise the reach of the Internet is its ability to act as a forum for
commercial activity . ... It was unsurprising , therefore , that newly emerging
Internet commerce soon became a policy priority , particularly for the European
Author: George Christou
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
This book breaks new ground by exploring governance strategies that the EU has been developing over the last decade for the growing electronic economy driven by the Internet. Through an analysis of key EU policy initiatives, the authors provide an explanation of both the form and mechanics of emergent governance arrangements within the European e-economy. Drawing on data gathered through interviews with key national and EU level policymakers, the volume applies theoretical insights from academic work on the 'regulatory' and 'post-regulatory' state to situate and explain the EU's role as an international regional actor in a new area of economic activity with important national and global dimensions. The New Electronic Marketplace will be important reading for academics, students and policymakers interested in the politics of new electronic communications regulation, communications policy, EU governance and international political economy. The book will interest the Internet 'policy community', including officials at national and EU level, those working in national regulatory authorities, and Internet, telecoms and other ICT professionals in the private sector.