How the Internet Became Commercial

Shane Greenstein traces the evolution of the Internet from government ownership to privatization to the commercial Internet we know today. This is a story of innovation from the edges.

How the Internet Became Commercial

Author: Shane Greenstein

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691178399

Page: 488

View: 831

In less than a decade, the Internet went from being a series of loosely connected networks used by universities and the military to the powerful commercial engine it is today. This book describes how many of the key innovations that made this possible came from entrepreneurs and iconoclasts who were outside the mainstream—and how the commercialization of the Internet was by no means a foregone conclusion at its outset. Shane Greenstein traces the evolution of the Internet from government ownership to privatization to the commercial Internet we know today. This is a story of innovation from the edges. Greenstein shows how mainstream service providers that had traditionally been leaders in the old-market economy became threatened by innovations from industry outsiders who saw economic opportunities where others didn't—and how these mainstream firms had no choice but to innovate themselves. New models were tried: some succeeded, some failed. Commercial markets turned innovations into valuable products and services as the Internet evolved in those markets. New business processes had to be created from scratch as a network originally intended for research and military defense had to deal with network interconnectivity, the needs of commercial users, and a host of challenges with implementing innovative new services. How the Internet Became Commercial demonstrates how, without any central authority, a unique and vibrant interplay between government and private industry transformed the Internet.

Human Rights in the Age of Platforms

Economic Value of the Advertising Supported Internet Ecosystem . Interactive
Advertising Bureau . https : // www ... Policy and the Economy 1 : 151-186 . 2015.
How the Internet Became Commercial : Innovation , Privatization , and the ...

Human Rights in the Age of Platforms

Author: Rikke Frank Jørgensen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262039052

Page: 392

View: 184

Scholars from across law and internet and media studies examine the human rights implications of today's platform society. Today such companies as Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter play an increasingly important role in how users form and express opinions, encounter information, debate, disagree, mobilize, and maintain their privacy. What are the human rights implications of an online domain managed by privately owned platforms? According to the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, adopted by the UN Human Right Council in 2011, businesses have a responsibility to respect human rights and to carry out human rights due diligence. But this goal is dependent on the willingness of states to encode such norms into business regulations and of companies to comply. In this volume, contributors from across law and internet and media studies examine the state of human rights in today's platform society. The contributors consider the “datafication” of society, including the economic model of data extraction and the conceptualization of privacy. They examine online advertising, content moderation, corporate storytelling around human rights, and other platform practices. Finally, they discuss the relationship between human rights law and private actors, addressing such issues as private companies' human rights responsibilities and content regulation. Contributors Anja Bechmann, Fernando Bermejo, Agnès Callamard, Mikkel Flyverbom, Rikke Frank Jørgensen, Molly K. Land, Tarlach McGonagle, Jens-Erik Mai, Joris van Hoboken, Glen Whelan, Jillian C. York, Shoshana Zuboff, Ethan Zuckerman Open access edition published with generous support from Knowledge Unlatched and the Danish Council for Independent Research.

The Internet

Internet Development of the Internet As PCs became more powerful , affordable ,
and available during the 1980s , firms ... Since the National Science Foundation (
NSF ) prohibited commercial network traffic on the networks it funded ...

The Internet

Author: James T. Perry

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780760061589

Page: 256

View: 542

Part of the Illustrated Series, this text offers a quick, visual, and step-by-step approach for learning about the Internet, including such topics as: e-mail, browsing, searching, accessing Newsgroups, and customizing information from the World Wide Web.

Internet Web Essentials

Usenet was developed completely separately from the Internet , but programs
and protocols for distributing articles on the Internet became readily available . A
number of commercial networks , some using technologies that weren ' t adapted
 ...

Internet Web Essentials

Author: Ernest Ackermann, Karen Hartman

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781887902403

Page:

View: 145

Mastering Internet Video

OL commercial implementations of MPEG - 1 , including special chips that
implemented it and supported the MP3 part of ... 1997 TO THE PRESENT :
COMMERCIAL EFFORTS If you recall , the Internet became extremely popular in
1996 and ...

Mastering Internet Video

Author: Damien Stolarz

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN:

Page: 477

View: 629

Provides information on Internet video, covering such topics as compression, formats, servers, software, networking, multicasting, and video editing.

Economics Wraparound

Internet connection THE PRIVATE SECTOR OF CYBERSPACE imbalance
between private costs and benefits . ... When the Internet became established , a
number of commercial computer networks sprang up to offer similar online
services .

Economics Wraparound

Author: J. Holton Wilson

Publisher: South-Western Pub

ISBN: 9780538656054

Page:

View: 802

Doing Business on the Internet

From a business point of view , a major turning point occurred in 1991 when fully
commercial Internet connections became available . First , the Commercial
Internet Exchange Association ( CIX ) was established specifically to provide a ...

Doing Business on the Internet

Author: Mary J. Cronin

Publisher: New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold

ISBN: 9780442017705

Page: 308

View: 457

Offers practical, real-life insights on: putting the Internet to work, new avenues of consumer support; product development, and marketing power; transforming research and development; entrepreneurial opportunities on the Internet; Internet access, business resources, and much more.

Educating Young Children from Preschool Through Primary Grades

Internet The Internet is made up of more than 100 , 000 interconnected networks
in over 100 countries , composed of commercial , academic , and government
networks . Originally developed for the military , the Internet became widely used
 ...

Educating Young Children from Preschool Through Primary Grades

Author: Laverne Warner

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN:

Page: 541

View: 394

Catering to the first time teacher, the authors provide day to day challenges of what it means to teach young children in the classroom, while fostering a mentoring environment for pre-service teachers entering the field. Chapter 4 addresses children with special needs and commonly used modifications for each of the disabilities. A unique chapter on teaching fourth graders (chapter 10) has been included that may be covered or skipped, depending upon state requirements. Lesson planning is emphasized throughout and sample lesson plans and mini-lessons have been included for every grade level and subject area.

How the Internet is Changing the Practice of Politics in the Middle East

38 In Habermas ' view , the structural transformation of the press from a public -
oriented to a commercial - oriented public sphere institution is critical . On the one
hand , to the extent that the press became commercialized , the threshold ...

How the Internet is Changing the Practice of Politics in the Middle East

Author: Joseph W. Roberts

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 319

View: 167

This book examines the socio-economic and socio-political factors that make modern information technology a useful and viable tool for expatriate political and social movements in dealing with the rigid state control of the traditional media in the Middle East.

The Internet E commerce Legal Handbook

There was a strong spirit of collegiality in the early days , but as the Internet
became more commercial in nature , these processes took on a new meaning .
As a result , a number of these collaborations developed into formal
organizations ...

The Internet   E commerce Legal Handbook

Author: Scott W. Pink

Publisher: Prima Lifestyles

ISBN:

Page: 535

View: 919

"The proliferation of e-commerce has created an overwhelming number of laws that govern online business. From data collection, encryption, and intellectual property to personal privacy, libel, and international trade, you and your company must carefully navigate a tangled web of new regulations to build real value through your e-commerce strategies." "The Internet & E-Commerce Legal Handbook answers all your questions and guides you easily through the legal issues of conducting business online. Whether you're a corporate attorney or a small-business owner, a CIO or a Web designer, you'll find yourself consulting this approachable, up-to-date resource every day to ensure the security, safety, and profitability of your online initiatives. Inside, e-commerce law expert and attorney Scott W. Pink gives you comprehensive information on the court rulings, regulations, and protocols that affect you - without all the legal jargon - and makes your rights and responsibilities clear." "Complete with standard legal forms you can use, a complete glossary of Internet and e-commerce terminology, and special sections for attorneys with case studies and statutes, this book takes the guess work out of building a bulletproof online business."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Discover What s Online

computers existed and at the same time the Internet was developed. As personal
computers became more ... In 1995, America Online became the largest
commercial online service with over six million members. Initally, CompuServe
was an ...

Discover What s Online

Author: Rob Tidrow

Publisher: Prima Lifestyles

ISBN: 9780761505037

Page: 410

View: 277

Discusses choosing a service provider, protecting against viruses and hackers, using a browser, and meeting people online

New Perspectives on the Internet

Figure 1-4 Department of Defense ( DOD ) NETWORKS THAT BECAME THE
INTERNET National Science Foundation ... university networks Internet
Commercial Interest Increases As PCs became more powerful , affordable , and
available ...

New Perspectives on the Internet

Author: James T. Perry

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 256

View: 892

Part of our New Perspectives Series, this text offers a case-oriented, problem-solving approach for learning the basic to more advanced features of the Internet -- from browsing, navigating, and searching on the Internet, to using e-mail, advanced communication tools and other Web topics.

The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1996

8 is even better ) networks were commercial : August 1991 You can access the
Internet in 4 ways : directly ; with a Amount of ... began to participate , and the
name Internet became an online haven for computer jocks , recom a commercial
 ...

The World Almanac and Book of Facts  1996

Author: Robert Famighetti

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9780886877804

Page: 976

View: 424

An annually updated reference guide to a wide variety of facts and information about the United States and the other countries around the world.

Persistence of Failure

Entering the 90s , the telecommunications firms concentrated on VOD including
commercial transactions and proprietary ... While interactive TV mostly remained
a video delivery mechanism , the Internet became enormously popular as it ...

Persistence of Failure

Author: Pyungho Kim

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 402

View: 684

Internet for Newbies

A direct connection to the Internet ( for example , through an ISP ) is faster . Cost
Startup in many cases is free , and rates are reasonable . Over the past several
years , as commercial services became more popular and competition heated up
 ...

Internet for Newbies

Author: Constance D. Williams

Publisher: Libraries Unlimited Incorporated

ISBN:

Page: 129

View: 272

Beginner's guide to using the Internet, geared toward educators, parents, librarians, and researchers, with information explaining what the Internet is and how it works, and instructions for quick access to the World Wide Web, FTP, gopher, telnet, and other Internet systems.

Manager s Guide to Making Decisions about Information Systems

Started by a Defense Advanced Research Project Agency ( DARPA ) project , the
logical outcome of work going back to the 1960s , the Internet became available
for commercial use in the mid - 1990s . In the intervening years since then , it ...

Manager s Guide to Making Decisions about Information Systems

Author: Gray

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN:

Page: 326

View: 650

The sign of a smart IS decision… The sign of a smart decision about information systems isn’t based on technical details alone; it’s based on how well that decision contributes to the overall success of the business. If you want to make your firm’s investment in IS really pay off, you need to approach IS from a truly managerial perspective. Now with Paul Gray’s Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions About IS, you’ll learn how IS can help the organization as a whole, and how to make key decisions on whether to undertake, upgrade, or decommission large software systems. You’ll also learn about the capabilities of IS, such as the many uses of a data warehouse and using IS to gain competitive intelligence. See the big picture. The Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions About IS first focuses on big picture issues, such as hardware, software, and the Internet; strategic uses of IS; aligning IS with the business; types of applications; and inter-organizational systems. Make decisions on big-ticket applications. Gray then provides you with essential knowledge that will help you make informed decisions on big-ticket applications, including electronic commerce, enterprise requirements planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), data warehousing, knowledge management, and business intelligence. Explore current IS issues. Finally, the Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions About IS examines the IS issues that managers are currently facing in today’s business, including outsourcing, systems integration, supply chain, people issues, mergers and acquisitions, infrastructure, and privacy, security, and ethics. Armed with this knowledge, you’ll have the confidence and understanding you need to sign-off on IS decisions that will have a valuable impact on your organization.

Issues in Cyberspace

As commercial content producers became involved with the Internet ,
engineering solutions began to focus on making it easier to sell products and
services online , rather than on linking computers for education and research as
early ...

Issues in Cyberspace

Author: Jan Samoriski

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN:

Page: 384

View: 576

"This book explores the problems facing society in the rapidly changing online environment, including the technical, social, and legal factors shaping the Internet today." Issues in Cyberspace provides an overview of the evolution of the Internet, the media interests that are driving its development, and the boundaries that are being established for online behavior in a variety of contexts. Issues discussed throughout the book include the influence of concentrated ownership, the First Amendment, commercialism, spam, privacy, encryption, hacking, copyright, libel, hate speech, indecency, obscenity, education, and global implications." Designed for those interested in Internet Studies as well as Communication Law and Policy studies.

The New Electronic Marketplace

The EU and Internet commerce regulation come to occupy a For the EU , the
emer hallenges in a nu One of the most significant incentives to broaden and
eventually to universalise the reach of the Internet is its ability to act as a forum for
commercial activity . ... It was unsurprising , therefore , that newly emerging
Internet commerce soon became a policy priority , particularly for the European
Commission ...

The New Electronic Marketplace

Author: George Christou

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN:

Page: 203

View: 552

This book breaks new ground by exploring governance strategies that the EU has been developing over the last decade for the growing electronic economy driven by the Internet. Through an analysis of key EU policy initiatives, the authors provide an explanation of both the form and mechanics of emergent governance arrangements within the European e-economy. Drawing on data gathered through interviews with key national and EU level policymakers, the volume applies theoretical insights from academic work on the 'regulatory' and 'post-regulatory' state to situate and explain the EU's role as an international regional actor in a new area of economic activity with important national and global dimensions. The New Electronic Marketplace will be important reading for academics, students and policymakers interested in the politics of new electronic communications regulation, communications policy, EU governance and international political economy. The book will interest the Internet 'policy community', including officials at national and EU level, those working in national regulatory authorities, and Internet, telecoms and other ICT professionals in the private sector.

Internet Starter Kit

A Little Internet History T countries also became interested in linking their public
networks to the growing NSFNet . Canada became ... Soon a variety of
commercial Internet access options and information services began to appear .
Popular ...

Internet Starter Kit

Author: Lisa Randall

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 159

View: 416