From Turbulence to Climate

This volume covers aspects of numerical modeling of the atmosphere and climate from the microscales of turbulence to the very large scales associated with climate and climatic change.

From Turbulence to Climate

Author: Martin Beniston

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642587879

Page: 329

View: 757

This volume covers aspects of numerical modeling of the atmosphere and climate from the microscales of turbulence to the very large scales associated with climate and climatic change. Each of the three major spatio-temporal scales of the atmosphere, namely, the microscale, the mesoscale, and the macroscale is addressed through a hierarchy of models. Results of model simulations are illustrated throughout the text, with many of these examples based on the author's original research work. For each type of model discussed here, the theoretical background, including governing equation sets, simplifying assumptions, and advantages and limits of the models, is provided. The topic of coupled, or nested, modeling systems as a promising approach to air pllution embedded in regional atmospheric flows, as well as to the regional atmospheric response to global climate forcings, is also addressed. An attempt is made throughout the book to highlight the highly interdisciplinary nature of atmospheric modeling, particularly in those sections dealing with climatic change issues.

Turbulence

But their worst enemy, according to Turbulence, is fear of complexity. Paul Carter argues that publicly-funded research cultures and their sponsers contribute to this problem when they treat complexity as a threat to communication.

Turbulence

Author: Paul Carter

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781922186799

Page:

View: 982

Sedimentology and Sedimentary Basins

The book is designed to reach an audience of senior undergraduate and graduate students and interested academic and industry professionals.

Sedimentology and Sedimentary Basins

Author: Mike R. Leeder

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444348361

Page: 784

View: 535

The sedimentary record on Earth stretches back more than 4.3 billion years and is present in more abbreviated forms on companion planets of the Solar System, like Mars and Venus, and doubtless elsewhere. Reading such planetary archives correctly requires intimate knowledge of modern sedimentary processes acting within the framework provided by tectonics, climate and sea or lake level variations. The subject of sedimentology thus encompasses the origins, transport and deposition of mineral sediment on planetary surfaces. The author addresses the principles of the subject from the viewpoint of modern processes, emphasising a general science narrative approach in the main text, with quantitative background derived in enabling ‘cookie’ appendices. The book ends with an innovative chapter dealing with how sedimentology is currently informing a variety of cognate disciplines, from the timing and extent tectonic uplift to variations in palaeoclimate. Each chapter concludes with a detailed guide to key further reading leading to a large bibliography of over 2500 entries. The book is designed to reach an audience of senior undergraduate and graduate students and interested academic and industry professionals.

Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications

Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics.

Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications

Author: Tomás Chacón Rebollo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493904558

Page: 517

View: 725

With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics, engineers, physical oceanographers, meteorologists and climatologists.

Business Planning for Turbulent Times

This book is for business and organizational leaders who want and need to think through how best to deal with increasing turbulence, and with the complexity and uncertainty that come with it.

Business Planning for Turbulent Times

Author: John W. Selsky

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136570586

Page: 240

View: 326

The world is increasingly turbulent and complex, awash with disruptions, tipping points and knock-on effects. These range from the impacts of warfare in the Middle East on energy futures, investment and global currencies to the vast and unpredictable impacts of climate change. All this threatens established strategic planning methods. This book is for business and organizational leaders who want and need to think through how best to deal with increasing turbulence, and with the complexity and uncertainty that come with it. The authors explain in clear language how future orientation and, specifically, modern scenario techniques help to address these conditions. They draw on examples from a wide variety of international settings and circumstances including large corporations, inter-governmental organizations, small firms and municipalities. Readers will be inspired to try out scenario approaches themselves to better address the turbulence that affects them and others with whom they work, live and do business. A key feature of the book is the exchange of insights across the academic-practitioner divide. Scholars of scenario thinking and organizational environments will appreciate the authors' conceptual and methodological advances. What has previously remained jargon only accessible to the highest level of corporate and government futures planners here becomes comprehensible to a wider business and practitioner community.

Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change Set

Giorgi , F , Shields Brodeur , C , and Bates , G T ( 1994 ) Regional Climate
Change Scenarios Over the United States ... Energy Balance see Energy
Balance Climate Models ( Volume 1 ) Beniston , M ( 1998 ) From Turbulence to
Climate ...

Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change  Set

Author: Ted Munn

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN:

Page: 3440

View: 811

THE DEFINITIVE RESOURCE The Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change is the first major reference work in this multi-disciplinary field, and presents... * Outstanding authorship and high quality editing * Comprehensive coverage with over 3,800 pages in 5 volumes * Over 500 articles, 100 biographies, 150 definitions and 100 acronyms * Extensive bibliographies with up-to-date references ABOUT THE ENCYCLOPEDIA The Wiley Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change has been published to meet the need for a comprehensive integrated reference in this burgeoning field. It consists of five volumes of inter-related material: Volume 1: The Earth System: Physical and Chemical Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Volume 2: The Earth System: Biological and Ecological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Volume 3: Causes and Consequences of Global Environmental Change Volume 4: Responding to Global Environmental Change Volume 5: Social and Economic Dimensions of Global Environmental Change * Each volume contains articles of between 1,000 and 10,000 words on major topics * Articles contain an abstract written for the non-specialist, followed by the main text which provides greater detail for the specialist * Biographies of distinguished environmental scientists discuss their contributions to a better understanding of global environmental change * Definitions of international terms and descriptions of acronyms of international and regional programs and agencies provide a quick reference source for the environmental scientist and student * Presents a thematic approach and includes theory, empirical studies and applications emphasising the inter-relationship between various disciplines and systems

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

This volume, number 109 of the Les Houches Summer School series, presents the lectures held in August 2017 on the subject of turbulent flows in climate dynamics.

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

Author: Freddy Bouchet

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192597450

Page: 240

View: 403

This volume, number 109 of the Les Houches Summer School series, presents the lectures held in August 2017 on the subject of turbulent flows in climate dynamics. Leading scientists in the fields of climate dynamics, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, physics and non-linear sciences present their views on this fast growing and interdisciplinary field of research, by venturing upon fundamental problems of atmospheric convection, clouds, large scale circulation, and predictability. Climate is controlled by turbulent flows. Turbulent motions are responsible for the bulk of the transport of energy, momentum, and water vapor in the atmosphere, which determine the distribution of temperature, winds, and precipitation on Earth. The aim of this book is to survey what is known about how turbulent flows control climate, what role they may play in climate change, and to outline where progress in this important area can be expected, given today's computational and observational capabilities. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides an essential background to future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to masters and PhD students and all researchers wishing to enter this field.

Improving Prognostic Moist Turbulence Parameterization with Machine Learning and Software Design

The primary result of this work is that concepts from software design and machine learning may be used to improve moist turbulence parameterization in weather and climate models.

Improving Prognostic Moist Turbulence Parameterization with Machine Learning and Software Design

Author: Jeremy McGibbon

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 100

View: 450

The primary result of this work is that concepts from software design and machine learning may be used to improve moist turbulence parameterization in weather and climate models. We have seen relatively slow improvement of moist turbulence parameterization in past decades, and explore a radically different approach to parameterization involving machine learning. The core of the approach is to rely on a trusted source of training data, such as high-resolution models or reanalysis, to be used to train a machine learning algorithm to perform the closures normally defined by conventional parameterization. The Python packages \texttt{sympl} (System for Modelling Planets) and \texttt{climt} (Climate Modeling and Diagnostics Toolkit) are introduced. These packages are an attempt to rethink climate modelling frameworks from the ground up. The result defines expressive data structures that enforce software design best practices. It allows scientists to easily and reliably combine model components to represent the climate system at a desired level of complexity and enables users to fully understand what the model is doing. Random forest and polynomial regression are used as an alternate closure assumption in a higher-order turbulence closure scheme trained for use over the summertime Northeast Pacific stratocumulus to trade cumulus transition region. While the machine learning closures better match high-resolution model data over withheld validation samples compared to a state-of-the-art higher-order turbulence closure scheme, the resulting model is unstable when used prognostically. Within a first-order closure framework, an artificial neural network is trained to reproduce thermodynamic tendencies and boundary layer properties from ERA5 HIRES reanalysis data over the summertime Northeast Pacific stratocumulus to trade cumulus transition region. The network is trained prognostically using 7-day forecasts rather than using diagnosed instantaneous tendencies alone. The resulting model, Machine Assisted Reanalysis Boundary Layer Emulation (MARBLE), skillfully reproduces the boundary layer structure and cloud properties of the reanalysis data in 7-day single-column prognostic simulations over withheld testing periods. Radiative heating profiles are well-simulated, and the mean climatology and variability of the stratocumulus to cumulus transition are accurately reproduced. MARBLE more closely tracks the reanalysis than does a comparable configuration of the underlying forecast model. Similar results are obtained over the Southern Great Plains.

The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa

... atmosphere . diffuse radiation scattered or reflected shortwave radiation
reaching the earth's surface . diffusion the exchange of fluid elements between
regions in space by apparently random molecular or turbulent motion . diffusivity
the rate ...

The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa

Author: Peter Daughtrey Tyson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN:

Page: 396

View: 845

The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa, the second edition of The Atmosphere and Weather of Southern Africa, further consolidates and expands Tyson and Preston-Whyte's in-depth textbook on the meteorology of southern Africa. It offers an introduction to the structure of the atmosphere, anddetailed, well-illustrated discussions on the physics of meteorology, measurement, weather systems, ocean-atmosphere interactions, pollution, climactic change, and forecasting. With a new emphasis on the growing field of climatology, this book is especially pertinent to environmental studies in andon the developing countries of southern Africa, and the relationship of the subcontinent to global weather and climatic changes.

Internal Wave Generation

This method is commonly used by oceanographer due to the complexity and cost of direct microstructure measurements. Result of this work have shown bias in the magnitude of dissipation at locations with high convectively-driven turbulence.

Internal Wave Generation

Author: Masoud JalaliBidgoli

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 162

View: 374

Mixing from turbulence is key to the distribution of oxygen, salt, and heat in the ocean. Climate models which do not appropriately represent this mixing cannot accurately interpret present or future climate. Topographic features with steep slope on the ocean bottom are sites of significant energy conversion from the oscillating tide to internal waves. Such sites can also host intense turbulence and reportedly are the primary source of deep ocean mixing. In this research, we investigate the internal wave dynamics, and magnitude and spatial distribution of turbulence at realistic topographies as well as isolated model obstacles using three-dimensional, high-resolution numerical simulations to develop physical parameterizations of conversion and dissipation rates in the near-field. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are performed on model ridges and realistic ocean topographies to investigate the effect of topographic and flow properties such as Reynolds number (Re), excursion number (Ex) and criticality (e) on internal wave fields, turbulence mechanisms and energy budget terms. These simulations close the energy budget, match with observations and illustrate significant local energy loss generated from mechanisms including Lee waves breaking during flow reversal, downslope jets, critical slope boundary layer, internal wave beams, off-slope lee-wave breaking, and valley flows. The physical scales of processes driving mixing during the internal waves generation in the ocean spans several orders of magnitude from the outgoing low-mode internal tide (vertical scale of order 1 km, horizontal of order several tens of km, time of order hours) to the nonlinear formation of higher wavenumber modes to, finally, turbulence events with spatial scale of order meters and time scale of order minutes. This range of scales poses a severe constraint on realistic simulations. I am involved in development of a comprehensive multiscale tool with a novel hierarchical approach that combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) at small scales with the Stratified Ocean Model with Adaptive Refinement (SOMAR) for the large scales. These simulations are used to assess the accuracy of inferred estimates of turbulent dissipation using density overturn-based methods. This method is commonly used by oceanographer due to the complexity and cost of direct microstructure measurements. Result of this work have shown bias in the magnitude of dissipation at locations with high convectively-driven turbulence. To address this, we have introduced an alternative density overturn-based model for such situation.

Weather and Climate in Africa

1000 2 Strong turbulence Very gusty 500 Turbulence in the boundary layer 20 °
25 ° 30 ° C Metres Shallow boundary layer 1500 Temperature 1000 Temperature
inversion 500 Weak turbulence 25 ° 15 ° 20 ° 5.14 Turbulence and its effect on ...

Weather and Climate in Africa

Author: Colin Buckle

Publisher: Longman Publishing Group

ISBN:

Page: 312

View: 512

This is the first comprehensive introduction to the meteorology and climatology of Africa.

Advances in Turbulence 7

The record has a bimodal distribution , with shifts between a cold glacial climate
and warmer interstadials . Figure 2 ( d ) ... A hypothesis is that it is a result of the
turbulent nature of the flow which manifests itself on these very long timescales .

Advances in Turbulence 7

Author: Uriel Frisch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Page: 613

View: 596

This volume contains an overview of the state of turbulence research with some bias towards work done in Europe. It represents an almost complete collection of the invited and contributed papers delivered at the Seventh European Turbulence Conference, sponsored by EUROMECH and ERCOFTAC and organized by the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur. High-Reynolds number experiments combined with techniques of imaging, non-intrusive probing, processing and simulation provide high-quality data which put significant constraints on possible theories. For the first time, it has been shown, for a class of passive scalar problems, why dimensional analysis sometimes gives the wrong answers and how anomalous intermittency corrections can be calculated from first principles. The volume is thus geared towards specialists in the area of flow turbulence who could not attend the conference as well as anybody interested in this rapidly-moving field.

Weather and Climate

What Causes Air Turbulence ? Most people who have flown in an airplane have
experienced the nerve - rattling ups and downs caused by air turbulence . The
strong updrafts , downdrafts , and eddies that create air turbulence form when the
 ...

Weather and Climate

Author: Time-Life Books

Publisher: Time Life Education

ISBN: 9780809496839

Page: 151

View: 693

Questions and answers describe the forces involved in the world's weather and climate.