From Turbulence to Climate

This volume covers aspects of numerical modeling of the atmosphere and climate from the microscales of turbulence to the very large scales associated with climate and climatic change.

From Turbulence to Climate

Author: Martin Beniston

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642587879

Page: 329

View: 327

This volume covers aspects of numerical modeling of the atmosphere and climate from the microscales of turbulence to the very large scales associated with climate and climatic change. Each of the three major spatio-temporal scales of the atmosphere, namely, the microscale, the mesoscale, and the macroscale is addressed through a hierarchy of models. Results of model simulations are illustrated throughout the text, with many of these examples based on the author's original research work. For each type of model discussed here, the theoretical background, including governing equation sets, simplifying assumptions, and advantages and limits of the models, is provided. The topic of coupled, or nested, modeling systems as a promising approach to air pllution embedded in regional atmospheric flows, as well as to the regional atmospheric response to global climate forcings, is also addressed. An attempt is made throughout the book to highlight the highly interdisciplinary nature of atmospheric modeling, particularly in those sections dealing with climatic change issues.

Turbulence

But their worst enemy, according to Turbulence, is fear of complexity. Paul Carter argues that publicly-funded research cultures and their sponsers contribute to this problem when they treat complexity as a threat to communication.

Turbulence

Author: Paul Carter

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781922186799

Page:

View: 954

Sedimentology and Sedimentary Basins

The book is designed to reach an audience of senior undergraduate and graduate students and interested academic and industry professionals.

Sedimentology and Sedimentary Basins

Author: Mike R. Leeder

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444348361

Page: 784

View: 396

The sedimentary record on Earth stretches back more than 4.3 billion years and is present in more abbreviated forms on companion planets of the Solar System, like Mars and Venus, and doubtless elsewhere. Reading such planetary archives correctly requires intimate knowledge of modern sedimentary processes acting within the framework provided by tectonics, climate and sea or lake level variations. The subject of sedimentology thus encompasses the origins, transport and deposition of mineral sediment on planetary surfaces. The author addresses the principles of the subject from the viewpoint of modern processes, emphasising a general science narrative approach in the main text, with quantitative background derived in enabling ‘cookie’ appendices. The book ends with an innovative chapter dealing with how sedimentology is currently informing a variety of cognate disciplines, from the timing and extent tectonic uplift to variations in palaeoclimate. Each chapter concludes with a detailed guide to key further reading leading to a large bibliography of over 2500 entries. The book is designed to reach an audience of senior undergraduate and graduate students and interested academic and industry professionals.

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

Large - scale atmosphere turbulence : • Isaac Held : i ) Quasigeostrophic dynamics and turbulence . ii ) Idealised models of the climate of tropical ...

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

Author: Freddy Bouchet

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192597450

Page: 240

View: 499

This volume, number 109 of the Les Houches Summer School series, presents the lectures held in August 2017 on the subject of turbulent flows in climate dynamics. Leading scientists in the fields of climate dynamics, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, physics and non-linear sciences present their views on this fast growing and interdisciplinary field of research, by venturing upon fundamental problems of atmospheric convection, clouds, large scale circulation, and predictability. Climate is controlled by turbulent flows. Turbulent motions are responsible for the bulk of the transport of energy, momentum, and water vapor in the atmosphere, which determine the distribution of temperature, winds, and precipitation on Earth. The aim of this book is to survey what is known about how turbulent flows control climate, what role they may play in climate change, and to outline where progress in this important area can be expected, given today's computational and observational capabilities. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides an essential background to future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to masters and PhD students and all researchers wishing to enter this field.

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

"This book collects the text of the lectures given at the Les Houches Summer School on "Fundamental aspects of turbulent flows in climate dynamics", held in August 2017.

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

Author: Freddy Bouchet

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198855214

Page: 256

View: 638

"This book collects the text of the lectures given at the Les Houches Summer School on "Fundamental aspects of turbulent flows in climate dynamics", held in August 2017. Leading scientists in the fields of climate dynamics, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, physics and non-linear sciences present their views on this fast growing and interdisciplinary field of research, by venturing upon fundamental problems of atmospheric convection, clouds, large scale circulation, and predictability. Climate is controlled by turbulent flows. Turbulent motions are responsible for the bulk of the transport of energy, momentum, and water vapor in the atmosphere, which determine the distribution of temperature, winds, and precipitation on Earth. Clouds, weather systems, and boundary layers in the oceans and atmosphere are manifestations of turbulence in the climate system. Because turbulence remains as the great unsolved problem of classical physics, we do not have a complete physical theory of climate. The aim of this summer school was to survey what is known about how turbulent flows control climate, what role they may play in climate change, and to outline where progress in this important area can be expected, given today's computational and observational capabilities. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides an essential background to future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to masters and PhD students and all researchers wishing to enter this field. It is complemented by online video of several lectures and seminars recorded during the summer school"

Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications

Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics.

Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications

Author: Tomás Chacón Rebollo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493904558

Page: 517

View: 386

With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics, engineers, physical oceanographers, meteorologists and climatologists.

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Microclimate Within and Above Vegetation Canopy

This dissertation, "Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Microclimate Within and Above Vegetation Canopy" by Hao-chi, Cynthia, Poon, 潘顥之, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold ...

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Microclimate Within and Above Vegetation Canopy

Author: Hao-Chi Cynthia Poon

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781361240250

Page:

View: 246

This dissertation, "Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Microclimate Within and Above Vegetation Canopy" by Hao-chi, Cynthia, Poon, 潘顥之, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4558967 Subjects: Turbulence - Mathematical models Vegetation and climate - Mathematical Models

Business Planning for Turbulent Times

This book is for business and organizational leaders who want and need to think through how best to deal with increasing turbulence, and with the complexity and uncertainty that come with it.

Business Planning for Turbulent Times

Author: John W. Selsky

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136570586

Page: 240

View: 229

The world is increasingly turbulent and complex, awash with disruptions, tipping points and knock-on effects. These range from the impacts of warfare in the Middle East on energy futures, investment and global currencies to the vast and unpredictable impacts of climate change. All this threatens established strategic planning methods. This book is for business and organizational leaders who want and need to think through how best to deal with increasing turbulence, and with the complexity and uncertainty that come with it. The authors explain in clear language how future orientation and, specifically, modern scenario techniques help to address these conditions. They draw on examples from a wide variety of international settings and circumstances including large corporations, inter-governmental organizations, small firms and municipalities. Readers will be inspired to try out scenario approaches themselves to better address the turbulence that affects them and others with whom they work, live and do business. A key feature of the book is the exchange of insights across the academic-practitioner divide. Scholars of scenario thinking and organizational environments will appreciate the authors' conceptual and methodological advances. What has previously remained jargon only accessible to the highest level of corporate and government futures planners here becomes comprehensible to a wider business and practitioner community.

Modeling Aircraft Contrails and Emission Plumes for Climate Impacts

Aircraft emissions lead to contrails and change cloud coverage in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, but their quantitative impact on climate is highly uncertain.

Modeling Aircraft Contrails and Emission Plumes for Climate Impacts

Author:

Publisher: Stanford University

ISBN:

Page:

View: 218

Aircraft emissions lead to contrails and change cloud coverage in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, but their quantitative impact on climate is highly uncertain. As environmental policy turns toward regulating anthropogenic climate change components, it will be necessary to improve quantification of the climate impacts of aviation. Toward this end, we present two models of aircraft emissions. The first model is a large eddy simulation (LES) with three-dimensional, eddy-resolving flow physics and ice deposition/sublimation microphysics. Modeled ice properties, cloud optical depths, and contrail width growth rates are consistent with observational field studies. A series of sensitivity cases shows the effect of various parameters over twenty minutes of simulation time. The analysis focuses on properties such as contrail optical depth and cross-sectional width that are relevant to climate impacts. Vertical wind shear is found to have the strongest effect on these properties through the kinematic spreading of the contrail. In cases with no shear, optical depth is most sensitive to aircraft type and ambient humidity. One model parameter, the effective emission index of ice crystals, is also found to affect optical depth. A subset of the LES cases is run for two hours of simulation time to approach the scale of dynamical time steps modeled by global climate simulations. These cases use more realistic ice microphysics, including sedimentation, and forced ambient turbulence, both of which are processes that control contrail development at late times. The second model is a simple, low cost parameterization of aircraft plume dynamics, intended to be used as a subgrid plume model (SPM) within large scale atmospheric simulations. The SPM provides basic plume cross-section time advancement that has been used as a dilution model within a coupled global atmosphere-ocean climate simulation to study the effects of aviation on air quality and climate. Comparison to the twenty-minute and two-hour LES results demonstrates that the SPM captures important plume development characteristics under the effect of vertical shear and atmospheric turbulence.

Aviation Meteorology Observations and Models

This Topical Volume focuses on aviation meteorology for operations and research, covering important topics related to wind and turbulence, visibility, fog and precipitation, convection and lightning, icing, blowing snow, and ice cloud ...

Aviation Meteorology  Observations and Models

Author: Ismail Gultepe

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 9783030309817

Page: 340

View: 771

This Topical Volume focuses on aviation meteorology for operations and research, covering important topics related to wind and turbulence, visibility, fog and precipitation, convection and lightning, icing, blowing snow, and ice cloud microphysics and dynamics. In addition to forecasting issues, the impact of climate on aviation operations is also highlighted, as temperature and moisture changes can affect aircraft aerodynamic conditions, such as lift and drag forces. This work uses measurements from state of art in-situ instruments and simulation results from numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models. New technologies related to satellites, radars, lidars, and UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are described, as well as new analysis methods related to artificial intelligence (AI) and neural network systems. Use of remote sensing platforms, including satellites, radars, radiometers, ceilometers, sodars, and lidars, as well as knowledge of the in-situ observations for the monitoring and short-term forecasting of wind, turbulence, gust, clear air turbulence (CAT), low visibility due to fog and clouds, and precipitation types are required for aviation operations at the airports and high level flying conditions. This book provides extensive knowledge for aviation-related meteorological processes and events that include short and long term prediction of high impact weather systems. Aviation experts, weather offices, pilots, university students, postgraduates, and researchers interested in aviation and meteorology, including new instruments for measurements applicable to forecasting and nowcasting, can benefit from consulting and reading this book. This book provides a comprehensive overview of our existing knowledge and the numerous remaining difficulties in predicting and measuring issues related to wind and turbulence, convection, fog and visibility, various cloud types, icing, and ice clouds at various time and space scales. Previously published in Pure and Applied Geophysics, Volume 176, Issue 5, 2019

Atmospheric Turbulence Over Crops

Atmospheric turbulence plays a key role in hydrological and carbon cycles, and in weather and climate. Understanding and forecasting turbulence is thereby relevant for human life and environment.

Atmospheric Turbulence Over Crops

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 9789462572416

Page: 143

View: 791

Entropy Production of the Earth System

These expressions show that the Earth's climate system correspond to state of maximum entropy production due to the dissipation of heat from turbulent fluids. This was applied to the long-term mean of the global climate by Garth Paltridge.

Entropy Production of the Earth System

Author: Suanne Oh

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 47

View: 703

Thermodynamic aspects of the long-term mean properties of the global climate system and turbulent fluid systems are reviewed. The necessary background material of thermodynamics and the climate system are introduced. General expressions are found for the rate of entropy production for a fluid system undergoing turbulence. These expressions show that the Earth's climate system correspond to state of maximum entropy production due to the dissipation of heat from turbulent fluids. This was applied to the long-term mean of the global climate by Garth Paltridge. The Earth's climate is driven and maintained by radiation exchanges with space. The absorption of solar radiation is the main source of entropy production; however, this appears to be irrelevant to the maximized properties associated with turbulence. The results tend to support the hypothesis of the maximum entropy production that include a large range of nonlinear fluid systems.

Climate Futures

Underground oil drilling and leaking pipelines make the turbulent waters dirty as well. Given that many occupants in the canoes can actually see the water, ...

Climate Futures

Author: Kum-Kum Bhavnani

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1786997851

Page: 400

View: 957

Approaching the issues of climate change and climate justice from a range of diverse perspectives including those of culture, gender, indigeneity, race, and sexuality, as well as challenging colonial histories and capitalist presents, Climate Futures boldly addresses the apparent inevitability of climate chaos. Seeking better explanations of the underlying causes and consequences of climate change, and mapping strategies toward a better future, or at a minimum, the most likely best-case world that we can get to, this book envisions planetary social movements robust enough to spark the necessary changes needed to achieve deeply sustainable and just economic, social, and political policies and practices. Bringing together insights from interdisciplinary scholars, policymakers, creatives and activists, Climate Futures argues for the need to get past us-and-them divides and acknowledge how lives of creatures far and near, human and non-human, are interconnected.

Internal Wave Generation

This method is commonly used by oceanographer due to the complexity and cost of direct microstructure measurements. Result of this work have shown bias in the magnitude of dissipation at locations with high convectively-driven turbulence.

Internal Wave Generation

Author: Masoud JalaliBidgoli

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 162

View: 750

Mixing from turbulence is key to the distribution of oxygen, salt, and heat in the ocean. Climate models which do not appropriately represent this mixing cannot accurately interpret present or future climate. Topographic features with steep slope on the ocean bottom are sites of significant energy conversion from the oscillating tide to internal waves. Such sites can also host intense turbulence and reportedly are the primary source of deep ocean mixing. In this research, we investigate the internal wave dynamics, and magnitude and spatial distribution of turbulence at realistic topographies as well as isolated model obstacles using three-dimensional, high-resolution numerical simulations to develop physical parameterizations of conversion and dissipation rates in the near-field. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are performed on model ridges and realistic ocean topographies to investigate the effect of topographic and flow properties such as Reynolds number (Re), excursion number (Ex) and criticality (e) on internal wave fields, turbulence mechanisms and energy budget terms. These simulations close the energy budget, match with observations and illustrate significant local energy loss generated from mechanisms including Lee waves breaking during flow reversal, downslope jets, critical slope boundary layer, internal wave beams, off-slope lee-wave breaking, and valley flows. The physical scales of processes driving mixing during the internal waves generation in the ocean spans several orders of magnitude from the outgoing low-mode internal tide (vertical scale of order 1 km, horizontal of order several tens of km, time of order hours) to the nonlinear formation of higher wavenumber modes to, finally, turbulence events with spatial scale of order meters and time scale of order minutes. This range of scales poses a severe constraint on realistic simulations. I am involved in development of a comprehensive multiscale tool with a novel hierarchical approach that combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) at small scales with the Stratified Ocean Model with Adaptive Refinement (SOMAR) for the large scales. These simulations are used to assess the accuracy of inferred estimates of turbulent dissipation using density overturn-based methods. This method is commonly used by oceanographer due to the complexity and cost of direct microstructure measurements. Result of this work have shown bias in the magnitude of dissipation at locations with high convectively-driven turbulence. To address this, we have introduced an alternative density overturn-based model for such situation.