Epigenetic Regulation of Lymphocyte Development

The studies described in this volume serve as a starting point to familiarize one self with the multifarious differences in epigenetic designs that orchestrate the progression of developing blood cells.

Epigenetic Regulation of Lymphocyte Development

Author: Cornelis Murre

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642241034

Page: 194

View: 193

The studies described in this volume serve as a starting point to familiarize one self with the multifarious differences in epigenetic designs that orchestrate the progression of developing blood cells. They also may serve as a general paradigm for the mechanisms that underpin the control of eukaryotic gene expression.

Transcriptional Control of Lineage Differentiation in Immune Cells

Genetic and Epigenetic Control of Early Lymphocyte Development Tomokatsu
Ikawa Abstract T, B, and NK lymphocytes are generated from pluripotent
hematopoietic stem cells through a successive series of lineage restriction
processes.

Transcriptional Control of Lineage Differentiation in Immune Cells

Author: Wilfried Ellmeier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319073958

Page: 331

View: 818

Insights into the regulation of immune cell lineage differentiation and specification as well as into the control of lineage integrity, stability and plasticity are of fundamental importance to understanding innate and adaptive immune responses. In this volume, leading experts provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of recent advances in the transcriptional control mechanisms and transcription factor networks that regulate these processes in a variety of different immune cell lineages. The chapters cover the regulation of T versus B cell lineage choice, discuss early B cell development and pre-B cell leukemia prevention, address transcriptional control mechanisms during the differentiation, in regulatory T cells and iNKT cells, detail genomic switches in helper cell fate choice and plasticity and highlight the role of the BTB-zinc finger family of transcription factors in T cells. Moreover, the chapters discuss transcriptional networks in DCs, NK cells and in innate lymphoid cells. Together, the reviews illustrate key transcriptional control mechanisms that regulate the development and function of immune cells and demonstrate the impressive advances made over the last decade.

Basic Immunology Functions and Disorders of the Immune System 6e Sae E Book

B and T Lymphocyte Development Boehm T, Swann JB: Origin and evolution of
adaptive immunity, Annual Review of ... W: Transcriptional and epigenetic
regulation of CD4/CD8 lineage choice, Advances in Immunology 110:71–110,
2011.

Basic Immunology  Functions and Disorders of the Immune System  6e  Sae E Book

Author: Abul K Abbas, Mbbs

Publisher: Elsevier India

ISBN: 8131259587

Page: 336

View: 395

Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 6e: SAE-E-book

Biomedical Index to PHS supported Research

CEL 1 POINS - 15350-10 0011 Generation of neuronal form and function -
Control of cell number in the amphibia. ... Aging and aberrant gene expression **
RO1CA - 35367-05 Embryonic control of melanoma ( mice ) ** RO1CA - 35533-
05 Epigenetic regulation ... rabbit , human ) ** R37Ál - 15803-10 Lymphocyte
development ( athymic mice ) ** ROLAI - 17310-08 T cell development in the
thymus ( mice ) ...

Biomedical Index to PHS supported Research

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The Journal of Immunology

Epigenetic silencing of CD4 in T cells committed to the cytotoxic lineage . Nat .
Genet . 29 : 332–336 . 14. Barnden ... The regulation of CD4 and CD8 coreceptor
gene expression during T cell development . Annu . Rev. Immunol . 17 : 523-554
.

The Journal of Immunology

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Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Lymphoid - specific genes and loci controlled by locus control regions . Table 2.
Cell - type - dependent epigenetic regulation of ... During lymphocyte
development , the Ig and TCR genes are generated by stepwise assembly of
different gene ...

Biochemistry and Cell Biology

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Thymus and Lymphocyte Development

The 60/40 ratio is consistent with a regulated inherited in a clonally stable fashion
, presumably the consemodel of allelic exclusion in which both alleles have the
poten quence of an early epigenetic mark ( 85 ) . Importantly , it was tial to ...

Thymus and Lymphocyte Development

Author: Cynthia Guidos

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 296

View: 293

Critical Reviews in Immunology

Barndt RJ , Dai M , Zhuang Y. Functions of E2AHEB heterodimers in T - cell
development revealed by a dominant negative mutation of HEB . ... Bain G ,
Romanow WJ , Albers K , Havran WL , Murre C. Positive and negative regulation
of V ( D ) J recombination by the E2A proteins . ... Differential requirements for
Runx proteins in CD4 repression and epigenetic silencing during T lymphocyte
development .

Critical Reviews in Immunology

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Analysis of the Ikaros Family of Proteins in Thymocyte Development

Epigenetic silencing of CD4 in T cells committed to the cytotoxic lineage . Nat
Genet ... Aiolos , a lymphoid restricted transcription factor that interacts with Ikaros
to regulate lymphocyte differentiation . ... K . Zinc finger - mediated protein
interactions modulate Ikaros activity , a molecular control of lymphocyte
development .

Analysis of the Ikaros Family of Proteins in Thymocyte Development

Author: Rupa Sridharan

Publisher:

ISBN:

Page: 328

View: 433

Cancer Research

Epigenetic activation of tumor suppressor microRNAs in human cancer cells .
Cell Cycle ... Epigenetic regulation of microRNAs in acute lymphoblastic
leukemia ... Requirement for cyclin D3 in lymphocyte development and T cell
leukemias .

Cancer Research

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Dissertation Abstracts International

PEA - 15 function in T lymphocyte development and activation . ... This
dissertation describes development and use of new technology to better
understand epigenetic control , to analyze the dynamics of satellite sequences ,
to study the effects ...

Dissertation Abstracts International

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CD4 T cell differentiation in infection amendments to the Th1 Th2 axiom

CD4+ T lymphocytes play an essential role in host defense against bacterial, parasitic and viral infections.

CD4  T cell differentiation in infection  amendments to the Th1 Th2 axiom

Author: Dragana Jankovic

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889195651

Page:

View: 867

CD4+ T lymphocytes play an essential role in host defense against bacterial, parasitic and viral infections. During infection, under the influence of intrinsic signals received through peptide-MHC/TCR interactions and extrinsic signals provided by pathogen-conditioned dendritic and other accessory cells, CD4+ T cells proliferate and differentiate into specialized T helper (Th) effectors, which produce distinct sets of cytokines tailored to combat a specific class of microbes. The concept of CD4+ T cell multi-functionality was developed after the seminal discovery of Th1 and Th2 cells nearly 30 years ago. Although the Th1/Th2 paradigm has successfully withstood the test of time, in the past decade additional Th subsets (Th17, Tfh, Th22, Th9) have been identified. Similarly, single cell analyses of cytokines and master transcriptional factors have revealed that, at the population level, CD4+ T cell responses are far more heterogeneous than initially anticipated. While some of the checkpoints in Th cell specification have been identified, recent studies of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation have uncovered a significant flexibility during the course CD4+ T lymphocyte polarization. In addition, Th cells expressing cytokines with counteracting functions, as a measure of self-regulation, display yet another level of diversity. Understanding the mechanisms that control the balance between stability vs. plasticity of Th effectors both at the time of initiation of immune response and during development of CD4 T cell memory is critical for the rational design of better vaccines and new immunotherapeutic strategies. This research topic will cover current views on Th cell development, with a focus on the mechanisms that govern differentiation, function and regulation of effector Th cells in the context of microbial infections.

Genome Research

Articles Allele - specific gene expression patterns in primary leukemic cells reveal
regulation of gene expression by CpG site methylation Lili ... originating from
disturbed development of blood progenitor cells that are committed to
differentiate in the B - cell or T - cell pathway . ... of individual genes in ALL ,
which is important for the understanding of the inherited and epigenetic changes
that result in ALL .

Genome Research

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Epigenetics of B Cells and Antibody Responses

Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene activity that are heritable but not caused by changes in the DNA sequence. By modulating gene activities, epigenetic changes regulate cell functions.

Epigenetics of B Cells and Antibody Responses

Author: Paolo Casali

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889197905

Page:

View: 716

Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene activity that are heritable but not caused by changes in the DNA sequence. By modulating gene activities, epigenetic changes regulate cell functions. They include DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications and gene silencing by the action of non-coding RNAs, particularly microRNAs. It is now clear that epigenetic changes regulate B cell development. By acting in concert with networks of transcription factors, they modulate the activation of B cell lineage specific gene programs and repress inappropriate gene transcription in particular B cell differentiation states.

A hallmark of B cell development in the bone marrow is the assembly of the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen through rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain V(D)J genes, as mediated by RAG1/RAG2 recombinases. Ig V(D)J rearrangement critically times the progression from pro-B cell to pre-B cell and, finally, mature B cell. Such progression is modulated by epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications, that increase chromatin accessibility and target RAG/RAG2 to V, D and J DNA. It is also dependent on the expression of multiple microRNAs. Mice deficient in Ago2, which is essential for microRNA biogenesis and function, have B cell development blocked at the pro-B cell stage. In agreement with this, B cell specific ablation of microRNA by B cell-specific knockout of Dicer virtually blocks B cell differentiation at the pro-B to pre-B cell transition.

After mature B cells encounter antigen, changes of the epigenetic landscape are induced by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response; such epigenetic changes underpin the maturation of the antibody response itself. They instruct those B cell differentiation processes, somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and plasma cell differentiation, that are central to the maturation of the antibody response as well as differentiation of memory B cells. Inducible histone modifications, together with DNA methylation and microRNAs modulate the transcriptome, particularly the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), central to SHM and CSR, and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), which is central to plasma cell differentiation.

Combinatorial histone modifications also function as histone codes in the targeting of the CSR and, possibly, the SHM machinery to the Ig locus by recruiting specific adaptors (histone code readers) that can in turn target and/or stabilize CSR/SHM factors. Epigenetic alterations in memory B cells contribute to their functionally distinction from their naive counterparts. Memory B cells inherit epigenetic information from their precursors and acquire new epigenetic marks, which make these resting B cells poised to promptly respond to antigen. The cross/feedback regulation of different epigenetic modifications/elements further increases the complexity of the B cell epigenome, which interacts with the genetic information for precise modulation of gene expression. It is increasingly evident that epigenetic dysregulation in B cells, including aberrant expression of microRNAs, can result in aberrant antibody responses to microbial pathogens, emergence of pathogenic autoantibodies or B cell neoplastic transformation. Epigenetic marks are potential targets for new therapeutics in autoimmunity and B cell malignancy.