Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466598239

Page: 374

View: 987

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.


Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa.


Author: Edoh Adabe, K.

Publisher: CTA

ISBN: 9290815663


View: 183

A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Author: Raj Patil


ISBN: 9781681170299

Page: 329

View: 367

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality. Cocoa trees resemble English apple trees. They grow best under the canopy of tropical rainforests, seldom reaching more than 7.5 metres (25 feet) high. To flourish they need to be shaded from direct sun and wind, particularly in the early growth stages.

Chocolate Science and Technology

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry.

Chocolate Science and Technology

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118913787

Page: 536

View: 743

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.

Drying Atlas

Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products H.C. Werner Muhlbauer, ... [22] E.O. Afoakwa, Cocoa Production and Processing Technology, CRC Press, ...

Drying Atlas

Author: Werner Muhlbauer

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 012818163X

Page: 446

View: 937

Drying Atlas: Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products provides, in a condensed and systematic way, specific insights on the drying-relevant properties and coefficients of over 40 agricultural products. It also presents information about the production methods that influence the drying process, the quality of the dried product, the official quality standards of the products, and the design principles and operating characteristics of drying systems that are widely used in the postharvest processing and food industry. Available books on drying technology mainly focus on drying theory and simulation of drying processes. This book offers systematic information on the impact of other important parameters, such as relative humidity, air flow rate, mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatment, and drying mode for specific products. It is a unique and valuable reference for scientists and engineers who want to focus on industrial drying applications and dryers, as well as graduate and post-graduate students in postharvest technology and drying. Explores the production methods that influence the drying process and quality of the dried product Outlines the official quality standards of the products, the design principles, and the operating characteristics of drying systems that are used in postharvest processing Features 41 chapters that are (each for an agricultural product) presented in a condensed and systematic way

Cocoa Chocolate and Human Health

This can eventually help understand the impact of cocoa intake on health. 5. ... Afoakwa, E.O. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology; CRC Press, ...

Cocoa  Chocolate and Human Health

Author: Sabine Ellinger

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 3039285882

Page: 288

View: 801

This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Beverages Processing and Technology

The techniques used in cocoa production, processing and consumption etc have also been described. 2. CULTIVATION IN THE WORLD AND INDIA Cocoa is an ...

Beverages   Processing and Technology

Author: D. Mudgil

Publisher: Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9387991725

Page: 302

View: 881

The objective of this book is to provide complete course content of beverage processing related subjects in ICAR, CSIR and UGC institutions in Food Technology, Dairy Technology, Food & Nutrition, Post Harvest Technology, Agricultural and Food Process Engineering discipline. The book contains fourteen chapters on the topics such as Introduction to Beverages, Role of Ingredients and Additives in Beverages, Fruit Juice Processing, Processing of Specific Fruits & Vegetables Juices, Cereal Based Beverages, Soft Carbonated Beverages, Alcoholic Beverages, Dairy Based Beverages, Sports Beverages, Tea Processing, Technology of Coffee Manufacture, Cocoa and Chocolate Based Beverages, Packaging of Beverages & Functional Beverages. The content of the book will be helpful for B.Tech, M.Tech, M.Sc. & Ph.D. students of above mentioned disciplines. These topics will also be helpful for the students preparing for competitive exams.

Fruits Vegetables and Herbs

Cocoa products deserve further investigation for a number of reasons. Although flavan-3-ols are present in ... Cocoa Production and Processing Technology.

Fruits  Vegetables  and Herbs

Author: Ronald Ross Watson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128029897

Page: 618

View: 577

Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion brings together experts from around the world working on the cutting edge of research on fruit, vegetables, and herbs in health promotion. Offering a timely, concise, scientific appraisal of the efficacy of key foods to prevent disease and improve the quality of life, Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion provides valuable evidence-based conclusions and recommendations. This reference text will encourage further research on the potential benefits of fruits and vegetables in health and disease prevention, providing a basis for possible dietary modifications by the government and the public. Provides insight on bioactive constituents found in fruits and vegetables that can be further studied to improve health and disease resistance or incorporated into other food products and used as alternative medicines and dietary supplements Includes valuable information on how fruits are important sources of bioflavonoids and nonnutritive bioactives that modify body functions Offers a conclusion or summary of evidence at the end of each chapter to enhance understanding of new approaches in the field

Modern Technology Of Milk Processing Dairy Products 4th Edition

Technology. Book. of. Cocoa,. Chocolate,. Ice. cream. and. other. Milk. Products. Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers Format: Paperback ISBN: ...

Modern Technology Of Milk Processing   Dairy Products  4th Edition

Author: NIIR Board


ISBN: 8190568574

Page: 550

View: 512

The dairy industry plays an important role in our daily life. It is difficult to realize how fast changes are taking place in the dairy industry. Milk is an important human food, it is palatable, easy to digest and highly nutritive. One of the important factors affecting the total amount of milk produced and the way in which this milk is utilized is the demand for the various products. In order to prepare such a diversity of products, many different processes have been developed by the industry. There are numerous types of milk products such as ghee, butter, paneer, cheese, yogurt, ice cream powder, baby cereal food, cream, and so on. Each of these has been designed to take advantage of some particular property of milk. Dairy products are generally defined as food produced from the milk of mammals; they are usually high energy yielding food products. Enzymes play an important role in the production of cheese. Raw milk contains several native enzymes some of which can be used for analytical and quality purposes for example pasteurization can be assessed by determining indigenous alkaline phosphate activity. India is known as the Oyster of the global dairy industry, with opportunities galore to the entrepreneurs globally. Anyone might want to capitalize on the largest and fastest growing milk and milk products market. The dairy industry in India has been witnessing rapid growth. The liberalized economy provides more opportunities for MNCs and foreign investors to release the full potential of this industry. The main aim of the Indian dairy industry is only to better manage the national resources to enhance milk production and upgrade milk processing using innovative technologies. The major contents of the book are cholesterol, coronary heart disease and mil fat, cholesterol and cardio vascular diseases, fatty acids & cholesterol, factors affecting cardio vascular disease, application of enzymes in dairy and food processing, utilisation of milk components: casein, advances in the heat treatment of milk, varieties of sheep's cheese, whey cheese, potted cheese, filled cheese, testing butter at different stages, presentation of butter at different stages, condensed and evaporated milk, dried milk powder, skimmed powder, malted powder, butter powder, ghee yoghurt, technology processing of dairy and dairy products, dried milk shake, milk powder, dahi from sweet cream butter milk, packaging of dairy and milk products, dairy farm, dairy products & milk packaging in pouches, etc. Developments in the dairy industry are enough to justify a revision of a considerable amount of material in this book. This book deals with processes, formulae, project profiles, details of plant, machinery & raw materials with their resources etc. of various dairy products. This book will help all its readers from entrepreneurs to food industries, technocrats and scientists.

Biofuels Production and Processing Technology

TABLE 5.4 Global Production of Different Crop and Their Residue ... from the harvesting of many perennial crops such as cocoa, coconut, and rubber.

Biofuels Production and Processing Technology

Author: M.R. Riazi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351651102

Page: 690

View: 523

The importance of biofuels in greening the transport sector in the future is unquestionable, given the limited available fossil energy resources, the environmental issues associated to the utilization of fossil fuels, and the increasing attention to security of supply. This comprehensive reference presents the latest technology in all aspects of biofuels production, processing, properties, raw materials, and related economic and environmental aspects. Presenting the application of methods and technology with minimum math and theory, it compiles a wide range of topics not usually covered in one single book. It discusses development of new catalysts, reactors, controllers, simulators, online analyzers, and waste minimization as well as design and operational aspects of processing units and financial and economic aspects. The book rounds out by describing properties, specifications, and quality of various biofuel products and new advances and trends towards future technology.

Fermented Foods Part II

Cocoa production and processing technology. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group, 15–21 (109–147). Afoakwa, E. O., Quao, J., Takrama, K., Simpson, B. A., ...

Fermented Foods  Part II

Author: Ramesh C. Ray

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351793764

Page: 525

View: 327

This book reviews the use of fermentation to develop healthy and functional foods and beverages, and the commercialization of some of the fermented food products through the use of biotechnology The first two sections cover the health and functional benefits of fermented foods and the latter two sections includes chapters on global and region-specific fermented foods that have crossed the geographical barriers to reach the supermarkets all over the world.


See also Mick Blowfield, “Ethical Supply Chains in the Cocoa, Coffee and Tea ... can be found in Afoakwa's Cocoa Production and Processing Technology and ...


Author: Kristy Leissle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1509513205

Page: 240

View: 671

Chocolate has long been a favorite indulgence. But behind every chocolate bar we unwrap, there is a world of power struggles and political maneuvering over its most important ingredient: cocoa. In this incisive book, Kristy Leissle reveals how cocoa, which brings pleasure and wealth to relatively few, depends upon an extensive global trade system that exploits the labor of five million growers, as well as countless other workers and vulnerable groups. The reality of this dramatic inequity, she explains, is often masked by the social, cultural, emotional, and economic values humans have placed upon cocoa from its earliest cultivation in Mesoamerica to the present day. Tracing the cocoa value chain from farms in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean, through to chocolate factories in Europe and North America, Leissle shows how cocoa has been used as a political tool to wield power over others. Cocoa's politicization is not, however, limitless: it happens within botanical parameters set by the crop itself, and the material reality of its transport, storage, and manufacture into chocolate. As calls for justice in the industry have grown louder, Leissle reveals the possibilities for and constraints upon realizing a truly sustainable and fulfilling livelihood for cocoa growers, and for keeping the world full of chocolate.

The Complete Book on Emulsifiers with Uses Formulae and Processes 2nd Revised Edition

How to start an emulsifier Production Business, How to Start Emulsifier Processing Industry in India, Industrial Applications of Emulsion Technology, ...

The Complete Book on Emulsifiers with Uses  Formulae and Processes  2nd Revised Edition

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers


ISBN: 8190568531

Page: 428

View: 959

Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e.g. water soluble and a water insoluble moiety. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. The composition, solubility properties, location and relative sizes of these dissimilar groups in relation to the overall molecular configuration determine the surface activity of a compound. Emulsifiers are classified on the basis of their hydrophilic or solubilizing groups in to four categories anionic, non ionic, cationics and amphoterics. Emulsifier is utilized in various industries; agriculture, building and construction, elastomers & plastics, food & beverages, industrial cleaning, leather, metals, paper, textiles paints & protective coatings etc. An emulsion is an ideal formulation for the administration. The emulsion form allows uniform application of a small amount of active ingredient on the surface of the skin. Some of the important emulsions in different field are pharmaceutical emulsions, rosin & rubber emulsion, textile emulsions, pesticide emulsions, food emulsions, emulsion in paint industry, emulsion in polish industry, leather & paper treatment emulsions etc. Various cosmetics creams, such as moisturizers, contain emulsifiers. Lighter, less greasy feeling creams are oil in water emulsions; heavier creams used to treat rough skin are water in oil emulsions, with oil as the main ingredient. Liquid soaps, toothpastes and other body care products also contain emulsifiers. Emulsifiers have the ability to optimize the concentration of certain nutrients in an emulsion. For example, in hair conditioners, some conditioning agents can damage hair if not properly diluted in the solution. Emulsifiers are among the most frequently used types of food additives. Emulsifiers can help to make a food appealing. Emulsifiers have a big effect on the structure and texture of many foods. Increasing demand for low fat food among health conscious consumers is gradually driving the market for emulsifiers. Besides stabilizing emulsions, emulsifiers derived from non hydrogenated fats help in maintaining sensory characteristics of food such as texture, flavor, and taste that are often lost due to fat reduction. This characteristic of making healthier products similar in taste to fat containing versions has enabled emulsifiers in gaining widespread acceptance in the market. The global food industry is also witnessing increase in demand for multipurpose emulsifiers that perform functions of both stabilization and emulsification. Some of the fundamentals of the book are characteristics and application of emulsifiers, wetting and detergent structures in emulsifier, effect of surfactant on the properties of solutions, wetting characteristics of emulsifiers, formulated emulsifiers, non surfactant functional additives, inert fillers, functional surfactant additives, uses of emulsifiers, household and personal products, industrial uses of emulsifier, anionic surfactants, non ionic surfactants, cationic, amphoteric and enzyme, alkylolamides, vinylarene polymers, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylation processes, application of emulsifiers, etc. The present book contains manufacturing processes of various types of emulsifiers which have applications in different industries. This is a resourceful book for scientists, technologists, entrepreneurs and ingredients suppliers. TAGS applications of emulsifier, Book on emulsifier, emulsifier Based Small Scale Industries, emulsifier examples, emulsifier in food, Emulsifier Processing Industry in India, emulsifiers list, Emulsifiers with Uses, Formulae and Processes, Emulsion - Uses of Emulsions, Emulsion Surface Area, Emulsions in Polish Industry, Food Emulsifier Applications, Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications, formulation and stability of emulsions with polymeric emulsifiers, Formulation of emulsifiers, Formulation of Emulsion Paints manufacturing process, Formulation of Textile emulsions manufacturing process, function of emulsifier in cosmetics, function of emulsifier in food, how to manufacture emulsifiers, How to start an emulsifier Production Business, How to Start Emulsifier Processing Industry in India, Industrial Applications of Emulsion Technology, Industrial Uses of Emulsifier, Leather and Paper Treatment Emulsions manufacturing process, Manufacturing process of emulsifier, Most Profitable emulsifier Processing Business Ideas, Nature and use of emulsifiers in foods, new small scale ideas in emulsifier processing industry, pharmaceutical application of emulsion, Procedure for Emulsification of Oil in Water Using Surfactants, Process of Polish Emulsions, Process technology book on emulsifier, role of emulsifier in emulsion, role of surfactant in emulsion, Starting an emulsifier Processing Business, types of food emulsifiers, Uses of emulsifiers, What is an Emulsifier?

Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World

fertilizers used in cocoa production. Industrial processing of cocoa beans however made the largest contribution to global warming potential (63.70%).

Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World

Author: Ernest K. Yanful

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402091397

Page: 360

View: 258

This book is the first edited compilation of selected, refereed papers submitted to ERTEP 2007. The selected papers either dealt with technologies or scientific work and policy findings that address specific environmental problems affecting humanity in general, but more specifically, people and ecosystems in developing countries. It was not necessary for the work to have been done in a developing country, but the findings and results must be appropriate or applicable to a developing country setting. It is acknowledged that environmental research, technology applications and policy implementation have been demonstrated to improve environmental sustainability and protection in several developed economies. The main argument of the book is that similar gains can be achieved in developing economies and economies in transition. The book is organized into six chapters along some of the key themes discussed at the conference: Environmental Health Management, Sustainable Energy and Fuel, Water Treatment, Purification and Protection, Mining and Environment, Soil Stabilization, and Environmental Monitoring. It is hoped that the contents of the book will provide an insight into some of the environmental and health mana- ment challenges confronting the developing world and the steps being taken to address them.

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Kowalska, J. and Lenart, A. (2005) The influence of ingredients distribution on properties of agglomerated cocoa products. Journal of Food Engineering, 68, ...

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Author: Suvendu Bhattacharya

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111840632X

Page: 744

View: 155

Food processing technologies are an essential link in the food chain. These technologies are many and varied, changing in popularity with changing consumption patterns and product popularity. Newer process technologies are also being evolved to provide the added advantages. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies fuses the practical (application, machinery), theoretical (model, equation) and cutting-edge (recent trends), making it ideal for industrial, academic and reference use. It consists of two sections, one covering conventional or well-established existing processes and the other covering emerging or novel process technologies that are expected to be employed in the near future for the processing of foods in the commercial sector. All are examined in great detail, considering their current and future applications with added examples and the very latest data. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies is a comprehensive treatment of the current state of knowledge on food processing technology. In its extensive coverage, and the selection of reputed research scientists who have contributed to each topic, this book will be a definitive text in this field for students, food professionals and researchers.

Kirk Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2 Volume Set

... 1:528–530 Chocolate and cocoa, production and processing, 1:530–532 Cholecalciferol. ... techniques, e.g. Affinity chromatography; specific processes ...

Kirk Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology  2 Volume Set

Author: Kirk-Othmer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470047488

Page: 2762

View: 699

This is an easily-accessible two-volume encyclopedia summarizing all the articles in the main volumes Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Fifth Edition organized alphabetically. Written by prominent scholars from industry, academia, and research institutions, the Encyclopedia presents a wide scope of articles on chemical substances, properties, manufacturing, and uses; on industrial processes, unit operations in chemical engineering; and on fundamentals and scientific subjects related to the field.

Third World to First World by One Touch

... bean Production, we never managed to excel in cocoa processing technologies. Like Malaysia which achieved tremendous gains in palm oil technologies ...

Third World to First World   by One Touch

Author: Crusading Engineer Robert Woode

Publisher: Trafford Publishing

ISBN: 9781466904552

Page: 196

View: 391

The book summarizes the vision and mission of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and his strategies for moving Ghana from a third world country to a first world by the shortest possible means. It also looks at the economic repercussions of his overthrow. It contains all the major infrastructural developments covering air, road, rail, sea transport, as well as telecommunication and major projects covering agriculture, industry, and the factors that led to their failure. Conditions that compelled him to introduce the PDA (Preventi ve Detenti on Act), as witnessed by the author, as well as those conditions that led to the overthrow of the Busia government. It examines the contribution of the private sector to poverty reduction as well as the dynamics of wealth creation in the twenty-first century. It proves that the poverty gap is a technology gap and suggests the establishment of a machine tool center to create capacity for machine building. It also suggests strategies including the use of the input/output matrix and the upgrade of scientific institutions as trainer of trainees in a national development agenda with quantifiable targets. It also defines the special attributes of the kind of leader required to take Ghana, and possibly Africa, out of its self-imposed poverty.

Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook Manufacturing Process Synthesis Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings 2nd Revised Edition

Edn.) Modern Technology of Food Processing & Agro Based Industries ... Complete Technology Book of Cocoa, Chocolate, Ice Cream and Other Milk Products The ...

Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook  Manufacturing Process  Synthesis  Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings  2nd Revised Edition

Author: Dr. H. Panda


ISBN: 8178331829

Page: 576

View: 311

Epoxy is a term used to denote both the basic components and the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resin are a class of thermoset materials used extensively in structural and specialty composite applications because they offer a unique combination of properties that are unattainable with other thermoset resins. Epoxies are monomers or prepolymers that further reacts with curing agents to yield high performance thermosetting plastics. They have gained wide acceptance in protecting coatings, electrical and structural applications because of their exceptional combination of properties such as toughness, adhesion, chemical resistance and superior electrical properties. Epoxy resins are characterized by the presence of a three membered cycle ether group commonly referred to as an epoxy group 1,2-epoxide, or oxirane. The most widely used epoxy resins are diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol-A derived from bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin. The market of epoxy resins are growing day by day. Today the total business of this product is more than 100 crores. Epoxy resins are used for about 75% of wind blades currently produced worldwide, while polyester resins account for the remaining 25%. A standard 1.5-MW (megawatt) wind turbine has approximately 10 tonnes of epoxy in its blades. Traditionally, the markets for epoxy resins have been driven by demand generated primarily in areas of adhesives, building and civil construction, electrical insulation, printed circuit boards, and protective coatings for consumer durables, amongst others. The major contents of the book are synthesis and characteristics of epoxy resin, manufacture of epoxy resins, epoxide curing reactions, the dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy resins, physical and chemical properties of epoxy resins, epoxy resin adhesives, epoxy resin coatings, epoxy coating give into water, electrical and electronic applications, analysis of epoxides and epoxy resins and the toxicology of epoxy resins. It will be a standard reference book for professionals and entrepreneurs. Those who are interested in this field can find the complete information from manufacture to final uses of epoxy resin. This presentation will be very helpful to new entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars, libraries and existing units.