IPCC ( 2001 ) reports only scattered comments about violent conflict as a
consequence of climate change . It observes that ' much has been written about
the potential for international conflict over water resources ' , and indicates that a
Author: Judi Wangalwa Wakhungu
Africa is characterised by widespread and deeply entrenched poverty, armed conflict, slow economic development until recently, and agricultural systems proven to failure during frequent and persistent drought. With its tremendous natural resources and remarkable social and ecological diversity, the continent reflects a close dependency of people on natural resources. This background report illustrates that it is this dependency that will present Africa with potentially severe adaptive problems in dealing with the twin effects of climate change and population growth in future years. More than ever, Africa and its partners need to work together to turn deforestation around, to save its green lungs, to manage its cities and to grow food for its hungry millions.
Buhaug, H. (2016) 'Climate change and conflict: taking stock', Peace Economics,
Peace Science and Public Policy, 22(4): 331–8. Buhaug, H., Gleditsch, N.P. and
Theisen, O.M. (2008) Implications of Climate Change for Armed Conflict, ...
Author: Tim Krieger
Publisher: Bristol University Press
Environmental conflict is a key driver of migration and this will only increase with climate change. Presenting insights from across the social sciences, this book examines the complex interdependencies between conflicts induced by environmental challenges and migration, proposing important governance strategies for the future.
Climate change is upon us and its physical effects have started to unfold. That is the broad scientific consensus expressed in the Fourth Assessment Review of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change.
Author: Dan Smith
Climate change is upon us and its physical effects have started to unfold. That is the broad scientific consensus expressed in the Fourth Assessment Review of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. This report takes this finding as its starting point and looks at the social and human consequences that are likely to ensue--particularly the risks of conflict and instability.
What are the causal relationships between resource scarcity and violent conflict? This book brings together international experts to explore these questions using in-depth case studies from around the world.
Author: Jürgen Scheffran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Severe droughts, damaging floods and mass migration: Climate change is becoming a focal point for security and conflict research and a challenge for the world’s governance structures. But how severe are the security risks and conflict potentials of climate change? Could global warming trigger a sequence of events leading to economic decline, social unrest and political instability? What are the causal relationships between resource scarcity and violent conflict? This book brings together international experts to explore these questions using in-depth case studies from around the world. Furthermore, the authors discuss strategies, institutions and cooperative approaches to stabilize the climate-society interaction.
9 Abduljabbar Abdalla Fadul, 'Natural Resources Management for Sustainable
Ambiguous Peace in Darfur', in Environmental Degradation as a Cause of
Conflict in Darfur, p. 42. 10 Nick Brooks, 'Climate Change, Drought and
Pastoralism in ...
Author: Jeffrey Mazo
Climate change has been a key factor in the rise and fall of societies and states from prehistory to the recent fighting in the Sudanese state of Darfur. It drives instability, conflict and collapse, but also expansion and reorganisation. The ways cultures have met the climate challenge provide lessons for how the modern world can handle the new security threats posed by unprecedented global warming. Combining historical precedents with current thinking on state stability, internal conflict and state failure suggests that overcoming cultural, social, political and economic barriers to successful adaptation to a changing climate is the most important factor in avoiding instability in a warming world. The countries which will face increased risk are not necessarily the most fragile, nor those which will suffer the greatest physical effects of climate change. The global security threat posed by fragile and failing states is well known. It is in the interest of the world’s more affluent countries to take measures both to reduce the degree of global warming and climate change and to cushion the impact in those parts of the world where climate change will increase that threat. Neither course of action will be cheap, but inaction will be costlier. Providing the right kind of assistance to the people and places it is most needed is one way of reducing the cost, and understanding how and why different societies respond to climate change is one way of making that possible.
The book addresses the question of whether the currently available instruments of international environmental and international humanitarian law are applicable to climate conflicts.
Author: Silke Marie Christiansen
The book addresses the question of whether the currently available instruments of international environmental and international humanitarian law are applicable to climate conflicts. It clarifies the different pathways leading from climate change to conflict and offers an analysis of international environmental law embedded within the international doctrine of state responsibility. It goes on to discuss whether climate change amounts to an issue covered by Art. 2.4 UN Charter – the prohibition of the use of force. It then considers the possible application of international humanitarian law to climate conflicts. The book also offers a definition of the term “climate conflict”, drawing on legal as well as peace and conflict studies.
The discussions around climate conflict need a holistic definition of conflict that
include the low- and high-intensity conflicts generated by state and economic
actors, 'green' or otherwise. Ban Ki-Moon, Sachs and Obama among others who
Author: Jan Selby
Is global climate change likely to become a significant source of violent conflict, and should it therefore be seen as a national security challenge? Most Northern governments, militaries, think tanks and NGOs believe so, as do many academic researchers, on the grounds that increased temperatures, changing precipitation patterns and rising sea levels will worsen existing social stresses, especially within poor societies and marginal communities across Africa and Asia. This book argues otherwise. The first collection of its kind, it brings together leading scholars of Anthropology, Geography, Development Studies and International Relations to provide a series of critical analyses of mainstream thinking on the climate-security nexus. It shows how policy discourse on climate conflict consistently misrepresents the causes of violence, especially by obscuring its core political dimensions. It demonstrates that quantitative research provides a flawed basis for understanding climate-conflict linkages. It argues that climate security discourse is in hoc with a range of questionable military, authoritarian and developmental agendas. And it reveals that the greening of global capitalism is already having violent consequences across the global South. Climate change, the book argues, does indeed have serious conflict and security implications – but these are quite different from how they are usually imagined. This book was published as a special issue of Geopolitics.
The thesis of this book is that the long-term effectiveness of the FCCC runs the risk of a horizontal negotiation deadlock between countries and the risk of vertical standstill within countries if there is little domestic support for the ...
Author: J. Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The climate change problem can only be effectively dealt with if global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be reduced substantially. Since the emission of such gases is closely related to the economic growth of countries, a critical problem to be addressed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) is: how will the permissible emission levels be shared between industrialised (ICs) and developing countries (DCs)? The thesis of this book is that the long-term effectiveness of the FCCC runs the risk of a horizontal negotiation deadlock between countries and the risk of vertical standstill within countries if there is little domestic support for the domestic implementation of measures being announced in international negotiations. The research question is: Can one observe trends towards horizontal deadlock and vertical standstill and if yes, how can the treaty design be improved so as to avoid such potential future bottlenecks? The research focuses on the perspectives of domestic actors on the climate convention and related issues in four developing countries: India, Indonesia, Kenya and Brazil. The following key findings emerge from the research: 1. Handicapped negotiating power: The common theme of the foreign policy of DCs is that ICs are responsible for the bulk of the GHG emissions and need to take appropriate domestic action.
This book examines strategy and military doctrine from NATO, the UK, US and Australia, and explores key issues such as displacement, food and energy insecurity, and male out-migration as well as current efforts to incorporate gender ...
Author: Jody M. Prescott
The gender-differentiated and more severe impacts of armed conflict upon women and girls are well recognised by the international community, as demonstrated by UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and subsequent resolutions. Similarly, the development community has identified gender-differentiated impacts upon women and girls as a result of the effects of climate change. Current research and analysis has reached no consensus as to any causal relationship between climate change and armed conflict, but certain studies suggest an indirect linkage between climate change effects such as food insecurity and armed conflict. Little research has been conducted on the possible compounding effects that armed conflict and climate change might have on at-risk population groups such as women and girls. Armed Conflict, Women and Climate Change explores the intersection of these three areas and allows the reader to better understand how military organisations across the world need to be sensitive to these relationships to be most effective in civilian-centric operations in situations of humanitarian relief, peacekeeping and even armed conflict. This book examines strategy and military doctrine from NATO, the UK, US and Australia, and explores key issues such as displacement, food and energy insecurity, and male out-migration as well as current efforts to incorporate gender considerations in military activities and operations. This innovative book will be of great interest to students and scholars of international relations, international development, international security, sustainability, gender studies and law.
Arguing that environmental protection and improving public health are inextricably linked, Mendez contends that we must incorporate local knowledge, culture, and history into policymaking to fully address the global complexities of climate ...
Author: Michael Mendez
Publisher: Yale University Press
An urgent and timely story of the contentious politics of incorporating environmental justice into global climate change policy Although the science of climate change is clear, policy decisions about how to respond to its effects remain contentious. Even when such decisions claim to be guided by objective knowledge, they are made and implemented through political institutions and relationships—and all the competing interests and power struggles that this implies. Michael Méndez tells a timely story of people, place, and power in the context of climate change and inequality. He explores the perspectives and influence low†‘income people of color bring to their advocacy work on climate change. In California, activist groups have galvanized behind issues such as air pollution, poverty alleviation, and green jobs to advance equitable climate solutions at the local, state, and global levels. Arguing that environmental protection and improving public health are inextricably linked, Mendez contends that we must incorporate local knowledge, culture, and history into policymaking to fully address the global complexities of climate change and the real threats facing our local communities.
This book offers a range of them. Drawing upon the work of exemplary contemporary writers, Speaking Peace in a Climate of Conflict shows how to speak and write clearly and generously.
Author: Marilyn McEntyre
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
What can we learn from contemporary writers about keeping public conversation compassionate, vigorous, faithful, and life-giving? Those who want to avoid simplistic partisan rhetoric and use words in a challenging, spirited way need practical strategies. This book offers a range of them. Drawing upon the work of exemplary contemporary writers, Speaking Peace in a Climate of Conflict shows how to speak and write clearly and generously. For example, we can attend more carefully to the effects of metaphors, recognize and avoid glib euphemisms, define terms in ways that retrieve core meanings and revitalize them, and enrich our sense of history by deft use of allusion. Contemporary readers are awash in many words that have been cheapened and profaned. But with deliberate use of intelligence and grace we can redeem their “sacramentality”—humanely uttered words can convey life-giving clarity and compassion. Speaking Peace in a Climate of Conflict is an homage to outstanding wordsmiths who have achieved that potential and an invitation to follow them in making well-chosen words instruments of peace.
This essay takes stock of the quantitative empirical literature, identifies central limitations, and presents five priorities for future research in the field.
Abstract A decade of systematic research on climate change and armed conflict has revealed a number of interesting patterns but few results that are robust across studies. This essay takes stock of the quantitative empirical literature, identifies central limitations, and presents five priorities for future research in the field. While these priorities refer to technical and operational aspects of statistical analysis, their underlying motivation, and objective, is to develop a better and more refined theoretical understanding of possible indirect and conditional connections between climatic changes and violent conflict. WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6:269–275. doi: 10.1002/wcc.336 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
A recent assessment of the empirical literature on climate change and conflict (
Buhaug , Gleditsch , and Theisen 2008 ) highlights the lack of robustness by
concluding that several of the earlier findings are either not replicable or do not
Author: Dorte Verner
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Dorte Verner and her team are once again ahead of the curve, bringing home the threat not just to our planet but our people in Reducing Poverty, Protecting Livelihoods, and Building Assets in a Changing Climate. they focus on the danger in the most human terms, examining the risk to our planet's most vulnerable, in particular the world's poor who rely on natural resources to survive---resources endangered by extreme weather changes. While focusing on Latin America, this book reminds us all there isn't a place on earth exempt from the threat of climate change.It's a moral wake-up call.---John F. Kerry, U. S. Senator In this important and provocative volume, Dorte Verner and her colleagues provide an expansive treatment of climate change and its many effects, especially on the global poor---David Lee, Professor, Cornell University This book is bound to become the defining analysis of climate change's implications for poverty and social cohesion... A key guide for policy makers---Daniel Cohen, Professor and Vice President, Paris School of Economics This much-welcome overview provides guidelines and suggests priorities for designing and implementing suitable adaptation measures.---Anthony Hall, Professor, London School of Economics It is no longer possible to prevent damaging climate change. If used properly, this book will save many lives---Robert Waldmann. Professor, University of Rome This is persuasive, comprehensive, excellent, thoughtful, and well-written work---Steven Solomon, Author, WATER: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization This book is simply a must for all those concerned by climate change.--- Javier Santiso, Professor of Economics, ESADE Business School This is first time to have a comprehensive social assessment of climate change and it will become a standard reference.---Shengen Fan, Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute This book presents evidence that we must improve our efforts on resilience and adaptation measures to counter the consequences of climate change on the most vulnerable population groups---Soren Pind, Minister for Development Cooperation, Denmark The team is to be congratulated---very well compiled and analyzed---Augusta Molnar, Rights and Resources Initiative
Failing to recognise the conflict and instability implications of climate change and
responding by investing in a range of preventive action could be very costly in
terms of instability , human lives and retarded development . This section gives
Author: Nick Mabey
"In the next decades, climate change will drive as significant a change in the strategic security environment as the end of the Cold War. If uncontrolled, climate change will have security implications of similar magnitude to the World Wars, but which will last for centuries. The past will provide no guide to this coming future; a robust response will require clear assessments based on the best scientific projections. Security sector actors must not just prepare to respond to the security challenges of climate change; they must also be part of the solution. This Whitehall Paper outlines a framework for climate security analysis and some of its implications for security policy, practice and institutional change." -- RUSI.
Chris Ward and Sandra Ruckstuhl assess the increased challenges now facing the countries of the region, placing particular emphasis on water scarcity and the resultant risks to livelihoods, food security and the environment.
Author: Christopher Ward
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The countries that make up the MENA region display wide diversity. One of the poorest countries in the world sits alongside two of the wealthiest, whilst the region's natural resources range from immeasurable oil and gas reserves to some of the scantiest natural endowments anywhere in the world. Yet through this diversity runs a common thread: water scarcity. Now, through the impact of human development and climate change, the water resource itself is changing,bringing new risks and increasing the vulnerability of all those dependent on water. Chris Ward and Sandra Ruckstuhl assess the increased challenges now facing the countries of the region, placing particular emphasis on water scarcity and the resultant risks to livelihoods, food security and the environment. They evaluate the risks and reality of climate change in the region, and offer an assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture and livelihoods. In a final section, they explore the options for responding to the new challenges, including policy, institutional, economic and technical measures.
The challenge for conflict analysts working with the results of an MPICE survey ,
however , is to translate the thousands of individual data points into an integrated
and coherent picture of the evolving conflict environment . As noted in chapter 9 ...
Author: Matthew Bernard Levinger
Publisher: United States Institute of Peace Academy Guides
Conflict Analysis: Understanding Causes, Unlocking Solutions is a guide for practitioners seeking to prevent deadly conflict or mitigate political instability. This handbook integrates theory and practice and emphasizes the importance of analyzing the causes of peace as well as the causes of conflict. It stresses that conflict analysis is a social as well as an intellectual process, helping practitioners translate analysis into effective action.