Appendix: Hypotheses on Power and the Causes of War H1. War is more likely
when states fall prey to false optimism about its outcome. H1. War is more likely
when the advantage lies with the first side to mobilize or attack. Haiti. A first-move
Author: Stephen Van Evera
Publisher: Cornell University Press
What causes war? How can military conflicts best be prevented? A prominent political scientist here addresses these questions, offering ideas that will be widely debated. Stephen Van Evera frames five conditions that increase the risk of interstate war: false optimism about the likely outcome of a war, a first-strike advantage, fluctuation in the relative power of states, circumstances that allow nations to parlay one conquest into another, and circumstances that make conquest easy. According to Van Evera, all but one of these conditions—false optimism—rarely occur today, but policymakers often erroneously believe in their existence. He argues that these misperceptions are responsible for many modern wars, and explores both World Wars, the Korean War, and the 1967 Mideast War as test cases. Finally, he assesses the possibility of nuclear war by applying all five hypotheses to its potential onset. Van Evera's book demonstrates that ideas from the Realist paradigm can offer strong explanations for international conflict and valuable prescriptions for its control.
This work through the examples of World War I, World War II in the Pacific, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and others, uncovers the complex multi-level processes by which disputes between countries evolve into bloody conflicts.
Author: Greg Cashman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES USING EXCEL® FOR SUCCESS, 2E, International Edition leads students to accounting mastery while increasing Excel® proficiency. Written with the modern business world in mind, this adaptation of the principles text--PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING, 24E--offers an innovative four-step system for students: (1) read the accounting concept and illustration, (2) follow the same concept using the Excel® Success Example, (3) practice using the "Try It" Tutorial, and (4) apply knowledge by completing the Excel® Success Problem.This text reinforces key accounting concepts through six basic Excel® formulas. Students build an Excel® portfolio to demonstrate basic competencies in accounting and Excel®. Each new copy of the book comes packaged with an access code that allows students to use the online Excel® "Try It" Tutorials. These tutorials guide students through the hands-on process of entering formulas and understanding how to Excel® for accounting. Excel® Success Special Activities at the end of the chapter require students to manipulate spreadsheets and save the files to demonstrate Excel® competency.
Causes of War has a structure and clarity that will make this volume a joy to use in the classroom.
Author: Jack S. Levy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Written by leading scholars in the field, Causes of War provides the first comprehensive analysis of the leading theories relating to the origins of both interstate and civil wars. Utilizes historical examples to illustrate individual theories throughout Includes an analysis of theories of civil wars as well as interstate wars -- one of the only texts to do both Written by two former International Studies Association Presidents
And has there been a decline in war-making over time - or is this just a pious hope?Azar Gat here draws together insights from evolutionary theory, anthropology, history, historical sociology, and political science to address these ...
Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Why do humans go to war? Have we been waging war ever since we first existed as a species? Is a propensity to wage war part of what it is to be human, or more a result of the evolution of human society? And has there been a decline in war-making over time - or is this just a pious hope?Azar Gat here draws together insights from evolutionary theory, anthropology, history, historical sociology, and political science to address these fundamental questions about the history of our species - the answers to which also have big implications for our species' future survival.The book reveals that theories regarding the recent decline of war, such as the "democratic peace" and "capitalist peace", capture merely elements of a broader Modernization Peace that has been growing since the onset of the industrial age in the early 19th century.
Now in a thoroughly revised and updated edition, this classic text presents a comprehensive survey of the many alternative theories that attempt to explain the causes of interstate war.
Author: Greg Cashman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Now in a thoroughly revised and updated edition, this classic text presents a comprehensive survey of the many alternative theories that attempt to explain the causes of interstate war. For each theory, Greg Cashman examines the arguments and counterarguments, considers the empirical evidence and counterevidence generated by social-science research, looks at historical applications of the theory, and discusses the theory’s implications for restraining international violence. Among the questions he explores are: Are humans aggressive by nature? Do individual differences among leaders matter? How might poor decision making procedures lead to war? Why do leaders engage in seemingly risky and irrational policies that end in war? Why do states with internal conflicts seem to become entangled in wars with their neighbors? What roles do nationalism and ethnicity play in international conflict? What kinds of countries are most likely to become involved in war? Why have certain pairs of countries been particularly war-prone over the centuries? Can strong states deter war? Can we find any patterns in the way that war breaks out? How do balances of power or changes in balances of power make war more likely? Do social scientists currently have an answer to the question of what causes war? Cashman examines theories of war at the individual, substate, nation-state, dyadic, and international systems level of analysis. Written in a clear and accessible style, this interdisciplinary text will be essential reading for all students of international relations.
Never have we been more in need of information and perspective, for if we wish to avoid war we must understand it. Michael Howard offers an analysis of our present predicament by discussing those issues that cause war and make peace.
Author: Michael Howard
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Public consciousness of the threat of nuclear war is rising steadily. Responses to the nuclear dilemma are conflicting and often confusing. Never have we been more in need of information and perspective, for if we wish to avoid war we must understand it. Michael Howard offers an analysis of our present predicament by discussing those issues that cause war and make peace. His book includes an examination of nuclear strategy today, views of the past about the conduct of international relations, ethics, modes of defense, and studies of military thinkers and leaders. The Causes of Wars illuminates the interrelationship between men and ideas, between war and other social forces, and between our present situation and its roots in the past.
Som et bidrag til konfliktforskningen har de to redaktører samlet 20 udvalgte artikler vedr. kriser og krige/konflikter og årsagerne dertil.
Author: Richard Christopher Snyder
Publisher: Englewood Cliffs, N.J : Prentice-Hall
Som et bidrag til konfliktforskningen har de to redaktører samlet 20 udvalgte artikler vedr. kriser og krige/konflikter og årsagerne dertil. Artiklerne er udvalgt til at belyse bogens syv afsnit. Part One: The Study of War: Theory and Method; Part Two: Motives and Perceptions underlying into War; Part Three: Movement toward War: From Motives and Perceptions to Actions; Part Four: Restraints against Use of Violence: Military Preparations; Part Five: Nonmilitary Restraints and the Peaceful Resolution of Controversy; Part Six: The Incidence of War: Statistical Evidence; Part Seven: Toward an Integrated Theory and Cumulative Research.
Four theories on the causes of civil war are reviewed.
Author: Göran Holmqvist
Publisher: Nordic Africa Institute
In this paper, four theories on the causes of civil war are reviewed. One theory, associated with Paul Collier, emphasises feasibility over factors related to grievance. A second theory, espoused by Frances Stewart, focuses on the role of horizontal inequalities. The third theory, identified with William Zartman, highlights the different roles "need, creed and greed" factors play in various phases of a conflict. And the fourth theory, associated with the World Bank/World Development Report 2011, points out "commitment" problems leading to institutional failures as a crucial factor. Each of the theories leads to quite different policy conclusions. Their strengths and weaknesses, and their claimed empirical support, are discussed. In addition, some of the mechanisms underpinning the theories are highlighted on the basis of empirical data. In particular, the central role of horizontal inequalities between social groups is discussed.
This is an analysis of one of the fundamental questions of international relations: what causes war? The author draws upon historical, statistical and philosophical perspectives to produce an innovative new theory.
Author: Hidemi Suganami
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In this highly original and important book, Hidemi Suganami analyses one of the fundamental questions of international relations: what causes war? Drawing on historical, statistical, and philosophical perspectives to produce an innovative theory, he rejects the simplistic notion that war can be explained by some straightforward formula, yet demonstrates that there are basic similarities among the diverse origins of wars. Such similarities, he argues, are rooted in the way the origins of wars, conventionally, are narrated. Comparing various narrative accounts of the origins of wars, Suganami shows that enquiry into the causes of war is inseparable from the question of responsibility.
The arbitrary spirit engendered by war , and the idea which it fosters , that all
rights and interests must yield to the public safety ... attempted to intimidate his
opponents by insinuating that they were treacherous to the cause of their country
Author: William Jay
Jay (son of John Jay) was a prominent New York judge and abolitionist leader; he bitterly criticized the war as a conspiracy to seize new territory for slaveholders.
Is there an underlying "cause" of war and, if so, what is it? In this book, David Sobek argues that there is no single explanation for war: factors leading to war in one case may well lead to peace in another.
Author: David Sobek
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Wars often spring out of nowhere with little warning. One need only look at the recent troubles at the Lebanon-Israeli border for evidence of this claim. At other points in history, such as the run-up to the Second World War, wars seem all but foretold. How does one understand a phenomenon that, at times, seems so random, while at others so predictable? Is there an underlying "cause" of war and, if so, what is it? In this book, David Sobek argues that there is no single explanation for war: factors leading to war in one case may well lead to peace in another. Understanding the onset of war, he contends, requires a movement away from single theories towards one that embraces the multi-faceted causes of war. The characteristics of individual states, the strategic interaction of multiple states, and the broad structure of the international system all affect the risk of war. Throughout the book Sobek draws on a wide range of examples – from the rise of Japan in the 19th century to the emergence of Hamas in the 21st century – to show how both domestic and international politics push states to, or pull them from, the brink of armed conflict. While civil war and terrorism are often viewed as a from of violence distinct from interstate war, Sobek examines them as simply an extreme form of asymmetric warfare. From this perspective terrorism emerges as just another tactic used by actors engaged in armed conflict. The Causes of War will be essential reading for students of security and strategic studies as well as anyone seeking to understand the rise of violent conflict in the contemporary world.
Theories on the origins of war are often based on the premise that the rational actor is in pursuit of material satisfaction, such as the quest for power or for wealth.
Author: Thomas Lindemann
Publisher: ECPR Press
Theories on the origins of war are often based on the premise that the rational actor is in pursuit of material satisfaction, such as the quest for power or for wealth. These perspectives disregard the need for homo symbolicus – meaning the preservation of a positive self-image for both emotional and instrumental reasons. A good reputation ensures authority and material resources. Non-recognition can be as much as an explanation of war as that of other explicative 'variables'. Two empirical studies examining the role of non-recognition in great power conflicts and in international crises will demonstrate the value of this symbolic approach.
Finally, the book addresses the debate on the future of war and peace in the 21st century. This book will be essential reading for students of international security, regional security, Middle Eastern politics, foreign policy and IR.
Author: Benjamin Miller
This volume is a collection of the best essays of Professor Benjamin Miller on the subjects of international and regional security. The book analyses the interrelationships between international politics and regional and national security, with a special focus on the sources of international conflict and collaboration and the causes of war and peace. More specifically, it explains the sources of intended and unintended great-power conflict and collaboration. The book also accounts for the sources of regional war and peace by developing the concept of the state-to-nation balance. Thus the volume is able to explain the variations in the outcomes of great power interventions and the differences in the level and type of war and peace in different eras and various parts of the world. For example, the book’s model can account for recent outcomes such as the effects of the 2003 American intervention in Iraq, the post-2011 Arab Spring and the conflicts between Russia and Ukraine. The book also provides a model for explaining the changes in American grand strategy with a special focus on accounting for the causes of the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Finally, the book addresses the debate on the future of war and peace in the 21st century. This book will be essential reading for students of international security, regional security, Middle Eastern politics, foreign policy and IR.
This book analyses the political and astrological causes underlying many of the major wars since 1950 and concludes that it is now time for politicians to consider the advice of astrologers in order to develop greater objectivity.
Author: Jamie MacPhail
Publisher: Wessex Astrologer
Would war be avoidable if world leaders could be persuaded to use astrology? This book analyses the political and astrological causes underlying many of the major wars since 1950 and concludes that it is now time for politicians to consider the advice of astrologers in order to develop greater objectivity. A brave book with piercing insights.