This book, written by a large number of world experts in the different sub-topics, describes the different aspects and processes relevant to their development.
Author: Korneel Rabaey
Publisher: IWA Publishing
In the context of wastewater treatment, Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) have gained considerable interest in the past few years, and several BES processes are on the brink of application to this area. This book, written by a large number of world experts in the different sub-topics, describes the different aspects and processes relevant to their development. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) use micro-organisms to catalyze an oxidation and/or reduction reaction at an anodic and cathodic electrode respectively. Briefly, at an anode oxidation of organic and inorganic electron donors can occur. Prime examples of such electron donors are waste organics and sulfides. At the cathode, an electron acceptor such as oxygen or nitrate can be reduced. The anode and the cathode are connected through an electrical circuit. If electrical power is harvested from this circuit, the system is called a Microbial Fuel Cell; if electrical power is invested, the system is called a Microbial Electrolysis Cell. The overall framework of bio-energy and bio-fuels is discussed. A number of chapters discuss the basics - microbiology, microbial ecology, electrochemistry, technology and materials development. The book continues by highlighting the plurality of processes based on BES technology already in existence, going from wastewater based reactors to sediment based bio-batteries. The integration of BESs into existing water or process lines is discussed. Finally, an outlook is provided of how BES will fit within the emerging biorefinery area.
This book serves as a manual of research techniques for electrochemically active biofilm research.
Author: Haluk Beyenal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book serves as a manual of research techniques for electrochemically active biofilm research. Using examples from real biofilm research to illustrate the techniques used for electrochemically active biofilms, this book is of most use to researchers and educators studying microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems. The book emphasizes the theoretical principles of bioelectrochemistry, experimental procedures and tools useful in quantifying electron transfer processes in biofilms, and mathematical modeling of electron transfer in biofilms. It is divided into three sections: Biofilms: Microbiology and microbioelectrochemistry – Focuses on the microbiologic aspect of electrochemically active biofilms and details the key points of biofilm preparation and electrochemical measurement Electrochemical techniques to study electron transfer processes – Focuses on electrochemical characterization and data interpretation, highlighting key factors in the experimental procedures that affect reproducibility Applications – Focuses on applications of electrochemically active biofilms and development of custom tools to study electrochemically active biofilms. Chapters detail how to build the reactors for applications and measure parameters
The book emphasizes waste treatment and nutrient removal and recovery from a diverse array of waste substrates, utilizing Bioelectrochemical Systems (BES) approaches.
Author: Lakhveer Singh
Bioremediation and Nutrients and Other Valuable Products Recovery: Using Bio-electrochemical Systems reviews key applications in transforming fuel waste substrates into simple low impact and easily assimilative compounds that are environmentally non-labile and tolerant. The book emphasizes waste treatment and nutrient removal and recovery from a diverse array of waste substrates, utilizing Bioelectrochemical Systems (BES) approaches. Throughout, the work emphasizes the utilization of electrode and/or electrolyte components in building self-sustaining fuel cell systems that target the removal of both conventional and emerging pollutants, along with the production of energy. Bioremediation strategies with potential scale-up options for wastewater treatment, metal removal and soil remediation drug derivates and emerging contaminants are discussed with particular emphasis. Chapters explore applications for these varied pollutants, together with prospects in waste minimization, nutrient recycling, water purification and bioremediation of natural resources. Explores a detailed panorama of potential known pollutants with detailed reviews on their removal and recovery Discusses bioproduct recovery application frontiers across wastewater treatment and bioremediation, metal removal and soil remediation, extraction of drug derivates and emerging contaminants Emphasizes pilot scale-up and commercialization potential for each recovery application discussed
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) encompass a group of technologies derived from conventional electrochemical systems in which the electrodic reactions are directly or indirectly linked to the metabolic activity of certain types of ...
Author: María Isabel San-Martín
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) encompass a group of technologies derived from conventional electrochemical systems in which the electrodic reactions are directly or indirectly linked to the metabolic activity of certain types of microorganisms. Although BES have not yet made the leap to the commercial scale, these technologies hold a great potential, as they allow to valorize different liquid and gas waste streams. This chapter is devoted to exploring some of the possibilities that BES offer in the management and valorization of wastes. More specifically, it focuses on analyzing practical aspects of using BES for energy valorization of wastewaters and CO2-rich streams. Here, it is shown how BES can compete, in terms of energy usage, with conventional wastewater treatment technologies by exploiting the energy content of some of the chemicals present in the wastewater. Moreover, it explores how BES could enable using wastewater treatment plants as load regulation system for electrical grids. It also includes some insights on the capability of BES to recover valuable products such as fertilizers form wastes, a feature that allows this technology to promote energy efficiency in the fertilizers industry, and a sector that demands substantial amounts of energy in our world today. Finally, some of the most relevant scale-up experiences in the field are also covered.
This book represents a novel attempt to describe microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as a renewable energy source derived from organic wastes.
Author: Debabrata Das
This book represents a novel attempt to describe microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as a renewable energy source derived from organic wastes. Bioelectricity is usually produced through MFCs in oxygen-deficient environments, where a series of microorganisms convert the complex wastes into electrons via liquefaction through a cascade of enzymes in a bioelectrochemical process. The book provides a detailed description of MFC technologies and their applications, along with the theories underlying the electron transfer mechanisms, the biochemistry and the microbiology involved, and the material characteristics of the anode, cathode and separator. It is intended for a broad audience, mainly undergraduates, postgraduates, energy researchers, scientists working in industry and at research organizations, energy specialists, policymakers, and anyone else interested in the latest developments concerning MFCs.
The objective of this dissertation is to present data and conclusions about bioelectrochemical systems using whole-cell bacteria to perform anodic and cathodic biotransformations with a variety of bacteria and reactors.
Author: Timothy David Harrington
The objective of this dissertation is to present data and conclusions about bioelectrochemical systems using whole-cell bacteria to perform anodic and cathodic biotransformations with a variety of bacteria and reactors. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the field of bioelectrochemical systems, and the relevant background information for the two parts of the dissertation. The first part of this dissertation describes studies on bioelectrochemical systems where Geobacter sulfurreducens was grown on advective, flow-through anodes. Chapter 2 explores the effect of NaCl concentration on electricity production in flow-through anodes modified with Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. Chapter 3 describes studies performed on Geobacter sulfurreducens in the same systems with a focus on the modeling of biofilm growth and attachment kinetics. The role of ion transport and the kinetics of bacterial growth are evaluated, and conclusions are reached that bioelectrochemical systems with flow-through anodes lead to very fast current-development kinetics after inoculation, that NaCl concentration in the biofilm alters the biofilm kinetics, and that when excess surface area is present, the biofilms grow at an arithmetic rate.
Chapters review crucial aspects of bioreactor design methodologies, operating principles, bioreactor susceptibility and systems constraints. The book supports vulnerability and hotspot detection through simulation and modeling approaches.
Author: Lakhveer Singh
Delivering Low-Carbon Biofuels with Bioproduct Recovery: An Integrated Approach to Commercializing Bioelectrochemical Systems explores current pathways to produce both the bioenergy from bioelectroactive fuel cells (BEFC) and their valuable byproducts using bioelectrochemical systems (BES) approaches. The book focuses on key methods, current designs and established variants of biofuels processing approaches, also including case studies. Chapters review crucial aspects of bioreactor design methodologies, operating principles, bioreactor susceptibility and systems constraints. The book supports vulnerability and hotspot detection through simulation and modeling approaches. Concluding chapters establish drivers for realizable scale-up and commercialization of bioelectrochemical systems. Discusses all major commercially viable biofuels, along with their high-value byproducts Focuses on frontiers of low carbon biofuel technologies with commercialization and scale-up potential Supported by schematics that outline integration with bioelectrochemical systems (BES) approaches
The objective of this work was the improvement and control of wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands operated as Microbial Fuel Cells (CW-MFCs) and Microbial Electrolysis Cells (CW-MECs).
Author: Marco Hartl
The objective of this work was the improvement and control of wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands operated as Microbial Fuel Cells (CW-MFCs) and Microbial Electrolysis Cells (CW-MECs). For this purpose, eight meso-scale experimental systems were constructed. The first experiment investigated the use of CW-MFC as a bioindicator, showing that it could be used as a qualitative alarm tool for sudden COD increases. The following three experiments investigated the removal of conventional contaminants as well as organic micropollutants (OMPs) using duplicates of CW-MEC, closed-circuit CW-MFC, open-circuit CW-MFC and conventional CW-control. Results showed that CW-MEC and CW-MFC+ increased the removal of COD (7-13%) and ammonium (18-22%) when compared to the control systems. Regarding OMPs, carbamazepine, diclofenac and naproxen removal was increased by 10-17% in CW-MFC+ and CW-MEC when compared to the control, while ibuprofen removal was similar amongst treatments. Additionally, a microbial activity analysis showed that activity was 4-34% higher in CW-MFC+ as compared to CW-control, and a microbial community analysis indicated that anode and cathode communities in CW-MEC were significantly different tq other treatments, seemingly due to the effects of electrolysis. In CW-MFC+ only cathode communities were different. probably due to sampling issues at the anodes.
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are capable of converting the chemical energy of organic matter using electrochemically-active microorganisms as a catalyst into electrical energy, hydrogen or other value-added products through ...
Author: Secil Tutar
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are capable of converting the chemical energy of organic matter using electrochemically-active microorganisms as a catalyst into electrical energy, hydrogen or other value-added products through oxidation/reduction reactions. The findings reported here addressed several different limitations and solutions of BESs operation and performance for wastewater treatment. The first part of the dissertation was focused on the scaling up of anodic biofilms for higher the current generation. We tested the effect of the electrode size and electron donor concentrations, represented as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), by enriching anodic biofilms on multiple electrode sizes and quantifying the anodic current densities while changing the electron donor concentrations. It was found that current generated using anodic biofilms was linearly scaled up at high COD loading (1500 mg/L), while current density decreased with increasing electrode size at lower COD loadings (150 mg/L). Further, microbial community analysis showed that the microbial community on the anode was independent of the electrode size but dependent on the medium composition during the enrichment phase. The second part of the dissertation was focused on developing a flow through 3-electrode bioelectrochemical reactor to evaluate how increased surface area could affect COD and total nitrogen (TN) removal rates and studying the mechanisms of nitrogen removal. It was found that increased surface area did not significantly increase COD removal rate. Compared to COD removal rate, TN removal rate increased proportionally to the surface area of the electrode in the BESs. Unexpectedly, outlet nitrite (NO2--N) and nitrate (NO3--N) concentrations increased. Our results indicated that it is possible to anaerobically remove COD while removing TN. Some future works such as integrated BESs with conventional systems to increase nitrogen removal efficiency, cost-benefit analysis, and life cycle analysis have been suggested. Overall, it was concluded that BESs with appropriately designed conditions such as electrode material, electrode size, and electron donor concentrations can be used for current generation and wastewater treatment.
This important book: Explores the fundamental concepts and rules in bioelectrochemistry and details the latest advancements Presents principles of electrocatalysis, electroactive microorganisms, types and mechanisms of electron transfer at ...
Author: R. Navanietha Krishnaraj
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
An introduction to the fundamental concepts and rules in bioelectrochemistry and explores latest advancements in the field Bioelectrochemical Interface Engineering offers a guide to this burgeoning interdisciplinary field. The authors—noted experts on the topic—present a detailed explanation of the field’s basic concepts, provide a fundamental understanding of the principle of electrocatalysis, electrochemical activity of the electroactive microorganisms, and mechanisms of electron transfer at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. They also explore the design and development of bioelectrochemical systems. The authors review recent advances in the field including: the development of new bioelectrochemical configurations, new electrode materials, electrode functionalization strategies, and extremophilic electroactive microorganisms. These current developments hold the promise of powering the systems in remote locations such as deep sea and extra-terrestrial space as well as powering implantable energy devices and controlled drug delivery. This important book: • Explores the fundamental concepts and rules in bioelectrochemistry and details the latest advancements • Presents principles of electrocatalysis, electroactive microorganisms, types and mechanisms of electron transfer at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, electron transfer kinetics in bioelectrocatalysis, and more • Covers microbial electrochemical systems and discusses bioelectrosynthesis and biosensors, and bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment • Reviews microbial biosensor, microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, flexible electronics, and paper and stretchable electrodes Written for researchers, technicians, and students in chemistry, biology, energy and environmental science, Bioelectrochemical Interface Engineering provides a strong foundation to this advanced field by presenting the core concepts, basic principles, and newest advances.
Microbial desalination cells (MDCs), a recent technological discovery, allow for simultaneous wastewater treatment and desalination of saline water with concurrent electricity production.
Author: Bahareh Kokabian
Microbial desalination cells (MDCs), a recent technological discovery, allow for simultaneous wastewater treatment and desalination of saline water with concurrent electricity production. The premise for MDC performance is based on the principles that bioelectrochemical (BES) systems convert wastewaters into treated effluents accompanied by electricity production and the ionic species migration (i.e. protons) within the system facilitates desalination. One major drawback with microbial desalination cells (MDCs) technology is its unsustainable cathode chamber where expensive catalysts and toxic chemicals are employed for electricity generation. Introducing biological cathodes may enhance the system performance in an environmentally-sustainable manner. This study describes the use of autothrophic microorganism such as algae and Anammox bacteria as sustainable biocatalyst/biocathode in MDCs. Their great potential for high valuable biomass production combined with wastewater treatment presents these systems as a viable option to replace expensive/unsustainable catalysts for oxygen production in MDCs. Since alga is a photosynthetic microorganism, the availability of light as well as the electron- anodic process may have significant effects on the biocathode performance. A series of experiments evaluating these effects proved that algae perform better under natural light/dark cycles and that higher COD concentrations do not necessarily improve the power density. Furthermore, three different process configurations of photosynthetic MDCs (using Chlorella vulgaris) were evaluated for their performance and energy generation potentials. Static (fed-batch, SPMDC), continuous flow (CFPMDC) and a photobioreactor MDC (PBMDC, resembling lagoon type PMDCs) were developed to study the impact of process design on wastewater treatment, electricity generation, nutrient removal, and biomass production and the results indicate that PMDCs can be configured with the aim of maximizing the energy recovery through either biomass production or bioelectricity production. In addition, the microbial community analysis of seven different samples from different parts of the anode chamber, disclosed considerable spatial diversity in microbial communities which is a critical factor in sustaining the operation of MDCs. This study provides the first proof of concept that anammox mechanism can be beneficial in enhancing the sustainability of microbial desalination cells to provide simultaneous removal of ammonium from wastewater and contribute in energy generation.
Bioelectrochemical systems(BESs)/ microbial fuel fells (MFCs) are a well-studied potential technology for bioremediation and decentralized wastewater treatment.
Author: Varun Srinivasan
Bioelectrochemical systems(BESs)/ microbial fuel fells (MFCs) are a well-studied potential technology for bioremediation and decentralized wastewater treatment. However, progress has been somewhat stalled at the bench-scale. In well controlled experiments electron recovery is high. In natural environments, wastewaters are complex and anode-respiring bacteria can be outcompeted in the presence of competing microorganisms, leading to a loss in electron-recovery and power production. Furthermore, the cathode of the MFC plays a vital role in providing flexibility for treatment options but is an understudied part of MFCs. Modelling Intracellular Competition in a Denitrifying Biocathode: One potential MFC configuration uses an organic-oxidizing anode biofilm and a denitrifying cathode biofilm. However nitrite, a denitrification intermediate with environmental and public health impacts, has been reported to accumulate. In this study, before complete denitrification was achieved in a bench-scale, batch denitrifying cathode, nitrite concentrations reached 66.4 % ± 7.5 % of the initial nitrogen. Common environmental inhibitors such as insufficient electron donor, dissolved oxygen, insufficient carbon source, and pH, were considered as a cause of the accumulation. Improvement in these conditions did not mitigate nitrite accumulation. We present an activated sludge model with an integration of the Nernst-Monod model and indirect coupling of electrons (ASM-NICE) that effectively simulated the observed batch data, including nitrite-accumulation by coupling biocathodic electron transfer to intracellular electron mediators. The simulated half-saturation constants for mediated intracellular transfer of electrons during nitrate and nitrite reduction suggested a greater affinity for nitrate reduction when electrons are not limiting. The results imply that longer hydraulic retention times (HRTs) may be necessary for a denitrifying biocathode to ensure complete denitrification. These findings could play a role in designing full-scale MFC wastewater treatment systems to maximize total nitrogen removal. Experimental Evaluation of Responses of Anode-Respiring Communities to Nitrate: A poorly understood phenomenon with a potentially significant impact on electron recovery in MFCs is the role of competition between anode-respiring bacteria and microorganisms that use other electron acceptors. Nitrogen species are a major constituent of wastewater and nitrate can act as a competing electron acceptor in the anode. Studies investigating the impact of competition on population dynamics in mixed communities in the anode are lacking. Here, we investigated the impact of nitrate at different C/N ratios, 1.8, 3.7 and 7.4 mg-C/mg-N, on the electrochemical performance and the biofilm community in mixed-culture chemostat MFCs. The electrochemical performance of the MFC was not affected under electron donor non-limiting conditions, 7.4 mg-C/mg-N. At lower C/N ratios, electron donor limiting, electron recovery was significantly lower. The electrochemical performance recovered upon removal of nitrate at 3.7 mg-C/mg-N. Microbial community analysis showed a decrease of Deltaproteobacteria accompanied by an increase in Betaproteobacteria in response to nitrate at low C/N ratios, and no significant changes at 7.4 mg-C/mg-N. Transcriptional analysis showed increased transcription of nirK and nirS genes during nitrate flux suggesting that denitrification to N2 (and not facultative nitrate reduction by Geobacter spp.) might be the primary response to perturbation with nitrate. Modelling Interspecies Competition in the Anode of a Microbial Fuel Cell: MFCs offer great promise for simultaneous treatment of wastewater and energy recovery. Even though there have been extensive experimental studies of multi-species anode-respiring biofilms, models and process optimization studies have been scarce. The formulation and evaluation of models is a critical step in the application of MFCs to wastewater treatment and bioremediation. The purpose of this study was to formulate a model that could simulate the effect of influx of a competing electron acceptor such as nitrate on the anode biofilm community. A model was formulated considering two distinct communities of bacteria: an anode-respiring community (not capable of nitrate reduction) and a denitrifying community (not capable of anode-respiration). A competitive scenario involving the influx of acetate and nitrate at a C/N ratio of 1.8 mg-C/mg-N was used to calibrate the model using experimental data. Calibration results indicate that facultative reduction of nitrate by facultative anode-respiring bacteria could be an important factor playing a role in the robustness and resilience of the anode-biofilms to fluxes of nitrate. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the biofilm retention coefficient (biofilm detachment rate) and species-specific growth kinetic parameters could play a significant role in the robustness of anode communities to influx of nitrate. Further investigation of change in detachment rate in response to the presence of nitrate in bulk solution is required.