Bio innovation and Poverty Alleviation

The proposed volume attempts to understand how forms of bio-innovation might be linked to the problem of poverty and its reduction through an inquiry into a number of empirical cases of present-day bio-innovations in Asia

Bio innovation and Poverty Alleviation

Author: Edsel E. Sajor

Publisher:

ISBN: 9789351508038

Page:

View: 622

The proposed volume attempts to understand how forms of bio-innovation might be linked to the problem of poverty and its reduction through an inquiry into a number of empirical cases of present-day bio-innovations in Asia

Bio innovation and Poverty Alleviation

... explored to understand their poverty alleviation focus. The bio-innovations focused and analyzed through this study are: (a) Rhizobium bio-innovation ...

Bio innovation and Poverty Alleviation

Author: Edsel E. Sajor

Publisher: SAGE Publishing India

ISBN: 9351504581

Page: 396

View: 144

The proposed volume attempts to understand how forms of bio-innovation might be linked to the problem of poverty and its reduction through an inquiry into a number of empirical cases of present-day bio-innovations in Asia. Conditions and circumstances in countries like Cambodia, China, India, Korea, Nepal, Philippines, and Thailand are quite different and provide a mosaic of varied experiences in bio-innovation that include shrimp farming, GMO cotton, bio gas, organic farming, and vaccines. Offering important insights into various forms of bio-innovation efforts and their effects on poverty alleviation, this volume is divided into three major themes that organize the main sections of the book—benefits for the poor: actual, direct, and prospective benefits for the poor; absence of positive impacts and institutional constraints; pro-poor drivers and embedding in anti-poverty alleviation. The central questions addressed here are: • Ways and circumstances in which certain forms of bio-innovations affect the poor and enable poverty alleviation. • Critical factors and conditions for improving the positive impact of bio-innovations on poverty alleviation. • Poverty alleviation goals should be the point of departure in rationalizing, identifying and designing appropriate and relevant bio-innovation programs.

Biochar for Environmental Management

... S. (2014) 'Biochar stoves: an innovation studies perpsective, in E. Sajor, B. Resurreccion and S. Rakshit (eds) Bio-innovation and Poverty Alleviation, ...

Biochar for Environmental Management

Author: Johannes Lehmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134489536

Page: 944

View: 798

Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.

Actor Network Theory and Technology Innovation Advancements and New Concepts

sar Teknologi Patior B2TP) to develop bio-ethanol products. ... on one hand, and job creation and poverty alleviation for farmers, on the other hand.

Actor Network Theory and Technology Innovation  Advancements and New Concepts

Author: Tatnall, Arthur

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1609601998

Page: 328

View: 729

Actor-Network Theory and Technology Innovation: Advancements and New Concepts provides a comprehensive look at the development of actor-network theory itself, as well as case studies of its use to assist in the explanation of various socio-technical phenomena. This book includes topics relating to technological innovation; both those using actor-network theory as an explanatory framework and those using other approaches. It is an excellent source of information regarding ANT as an approach to technological innovation and its link to ICT (Information Communication Technology).

Development Centre Seminars Technology and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific

Perhaps the greatest risk is that the crops of poor subsistence farmers will be bypassed by biotechnology innovations. There is also a risk that, ...

Development Centre Seminars Technology and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264176179

Page: 225

View: 416

Poverty reduction remains a major development challenge in much of Asia and the Pacific. Historically, technology has played a central role in raising living standards across the region, including those of the poor. The Green Revolution and various ...

The Gene Revolution and Global Food Security

Biotechnology Innovation in Latecomers B. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, P. Gehl Sampath, ... biotechnology 39 and poverty 6 and poverty reduction 202–3 Chu, W-W.

The Gene Revolution and Global Food Security

Author: B. Oyelaran-Oyeyinka

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230277993

Page: 237

View: 543

Using the concept of innovation capacity, this book, using recent field data from countries in Asia and Africa, competently demonstrates how biotechnology can contribute to sustainable economic development. The approach articulates the imperative for developing countries to build up specific capabilities backed up by policies and institutions.

Sustainability Transition Towards a Bio Based Economy New Technologies New Products New Policies

The German bioeconomy includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, ... and the continued need for economic progress indispensable for poverty reduction [10].

Sustainability Transition Towards a Bio Based Economy  New Technologies  New Products  New Policies

Author: Piergiuseppe Morone

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 3038973807

Page: 256

View: 926

(This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Sustainability Transition Towards a Bio-Based Economy: New Technologies, New Products, New Policies" that was published in Sustainability

Bio Based Materials as Applicable Accessible and Affordable Healthcare Solutions

There are a multitude of confounding elements that make innovations that seem ... and biomedical innovation to economic development and poverty alleviation ...

Bio Based Materials as Applicable  Accessible  and Affordable Healthcare Solutions

Author: Adam A. Tracy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319693263

Page: 53

View: 236

In this book, Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and a region in the lowest income group per capita, is used to demonstrate the potential for healthcare reorganization and collaboration with the introduction of “successful” technologies centered around available, bio-compatible, and sustainable natural resources. Our book discusses three of the top killers of children under 5 years of age in Nigeria, pneumonia (20%), diarrheal diseases (15%), and traumatic injuries (4%). These conditions are used as examples to demonstrate the potential for improved pediatric outcomes with treatments engineered from sustainable and natural resources. Furthermore, this book outlines possible action items that can help drive economic growth, educational opportunities, collaborative outreach, and workforce productivity to build a healthy and sustainable community. Medical technology in the industrialized world has seen rapid advancements leading to increased survival and greater patient outcomes. However, the development and implementation of these resources is not always applicable to regions in need of new and more basic ways to provide treatment. Moore’s Law, a paradigm that considers advancement synonymous with increased digitization and optimization of electronic processes, defines the history of technology. However, the functionality of advanced and “smart” technology is essentially useless in underdeveloped areas. These regions lack some of the basic requirements for innovative medical technologies to impact human health, such as electricity, access to spare parts, computer analysis tools, and network architecture. In addition, the poor physical infrastructure, insufficient management, and lack of technical culture are barriers for entry and sustainability of these technologies. Rather than importing medical devices from industrialized countries, we propose that the mindset and research focus for under developed areas must be on “successful” technologies. Simply put, these areas need technology that “gets the job done.”

Comparative Approaches to Biotechnology Development and Use in Developed and Emerging Nations

Biotechnology Innovation for Inclusive Growth - A Study of Indian Policies to ... The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network Economic ...

Comparative Approaches to Biotechnology Development and Use in Developed and Emerging Nations

Author: Bas, Tomas Gabriel

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522510419

Page: 592

View: 253

The development of biotechnological innovations is quickly becoming a globalized phenomenon as emerging nations are making major strides to compete with more developed economies. Though efforts to bridge the gap between emerging and developed nations have been successful, there are still many barriers that need to be overcome. Comparative Approaches to Biotechnology Development and Use in Developed and Emerging Nations evaluates the importance of manufacturing biotechnological products around the world. Highlighting a comparative analysis of public policies, technological policies, innovations, and marketing capabilities of developed and emerging nations, this publication is a pivotal reference source for government officers, policy makers, academics, and practitioners.

Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services

The potential contribution of nature to poverty alleviation, ... build in benefits created by bio-innovations such as biomimicry and pharmaceuticals.

Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services

Author: Marion Potschin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317687043

Page: 630

View: 978

The idea that nature provides services to people is one of the most powerful concepts to have emerged over the last two decades. It is shaping our understanding of the role that biodiverse ecosystems play in the environment and their benefits for humankind. As a result, there is a growing interest in operational and methodological issues surrounding ecosystem services amongst environmental managers, and many institutions are now developing teaching programmes to equip the next generation with the skills needed to apply the concepts more effectively. This handbook provides a comprehensive reference text on ecosystem services, integrating natural and social science (including economics). Collectively the chapters, written by the world's leading authorities, demonstrate the importance of biodiversity for people, policy and practice. They also show how the value of ecosystems to society can be expressed in monetary and non-monetary terms, so that the environment can be better taken into account in decision making. The significance of the ecosystem service paradigm is that it helps us redefine and better communicate the relationships between people and nature. It is shown how these are essential to resolving challenges such as sustainable development and poverty reduction, and the creation of a green economy in developing and developed world contexts.

Innovative Water Resource Use and Management for Poverty Reduction in Sub Saharan Africa An Anthology

This study assessed the bio-physical need, sociopolitical acceptability and economic ... for food security and poverty alleviation in rural Kenya.

Innovative Water Resource Use and Management for Poverty Reduction in Sub Saharan Africa  An Anthology

Author: Chanie, Paulos

Publisher: OSSREA

ISBN: 9994455753

Page: 280

View: 324

Like in many parts of the world, water resources in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been pivotal for human survival, economic growth, social development, and practicing certain religion and cultural ethos. However, in spite of the intrinsic values of water, its use and management in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without limitations. The demand for water resources is increasing mainly due to rapid population growth, industrialization and urbanization and dealing with water-related issues has been complex and challenging for sustainable growth. Whilst there are various efforts by national governments, non-government organizations and communities to effectively and efficiently utilize and manage water resources, there are few comprehensive studies in sub- Saharan Africa that show the impact of the efforts on poverty reduction. Although certain reports indicate that many SSA countries lack clear vision on how water use can be harnessed with pro-poor growth and how poor communities can be capacitated to use water for poverty reduction, there are little exhaustive studies that clearly show familiar and innovative water use and management interventions followed by communities, national governments and other stakeholders, and demonstrate the challenges and successes of the same. Cognizant of the knowledge gap, in 2012 OSSREA launched a research project on ordinary and innovative water use and management patterns and practices in SSA, with a view to generate new knowledge on unexploited opportunities that could enhance the contribution of water resources to poverty reduction. This anthology documents various issues including water use and management in agriculture especially in irrigation projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe; water harvesting in Kenya and Uganda; the role of local water use institutions in Ethiopia; and water source maintenance and protection in Uganda.

Knowledge Driven Developments in the Bioeconomy

... agricultural and rural incomes, poverty reduction and economic growth. ... are useful for food security goals as well as for biotechnology innovations; ...

Knowledge Driven Developments in the Bioeconomy

Author: Stephan Dabbert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319583743

Page: 341

View: 708

This book is at the cutting edge of the ongoing research in bioeconomy and encompasses both technological and economic strategies to master the transformation towards a knowledge- and bio-based production system. The volume combines different international perspectives with approaches of the various fields of research. Bioeconomy is one of the future concepts of an economy which, while based on renewable biological resources, also predicts economic growth. Starting from a growth-economic as well as knowledge- and innovation-economic perspective the contributions give an overview of different existing patterns and cases and describe the basic prerequisites for the bioeconomy transformation. Therewith, the volume is a resource for experts and newcomers in the field of bioeconomy giving insight into the life cycle of bio-based products, detailing the latest advancements and how to turn them into economic growth.

The Right to Food and the Trips Agreement

Isaac, G.E. and W.A. Kerr 2004: “Bioprospecting or Biopiracy? Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge in Biotechnology Innovation”, in Journal of ...

The Right to Food and the Trips Agreement

Author: Hans Morten Haugen

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004161848

Page: 506

View: 723

This volume analyses relationships between patent rights and human rights, focusing on the right to food. Whether the TRIPS Agreement and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights actually conflict, is analyzed through different techniques of assessing treaty conflict.

GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION

Level of it technology Bio-technology Sophisticated and knowledge based ... that the development of new innovations has been mainly limited to apparel and ...

GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION

Author: AMITA SINGH

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 8120336984

Page: 352

View: 155

Poverty reduction in South Asia is a precondition for sustaining any form of reforms in governance. The new public management reforms which started in South Asia from Sri Lanka taking the initiative in 1977–78 have been a decisive break from the previously practised State driven protectionist system. Investment in the region has been rising and even per capita income has shown some increase, yet the state has not been able to lead these reforms appropriately and efficiently. Thus poverty has not been reduced, ordinary people continue to languish under government programmes and the socially excluded remain outside the mainstream decision making bodies. Governance in South Asia faces the single most important challenge of poverty reduction which continues to blunt and disfigure capacity, self esteem and service delivery system to the poor. This book attempts to bring out microlevel studies from many regions in South Asia to address issues of entrepreneurship, knowledge and professionalism. As an initiator of the idea on developing a critique to the straightjacketed ‘best practice’ research, this book questions the standard practice in evaluating administrative reforms as not being the true base for knowledge. Administrators need to balance capacity and control in every implementation programme. Confining to the knowledge of ‘best practices’ may conceal enormous amount of information from the ‘less than best’ practices which may be necessary to sustain good initiatives of public managers. This book highlights areas of active networking, partnerships and collaborations amongst state and non-state bodies, NGOs and specialist Science and Technical Organizations. The true nature of governance is explained and demonstrated through the processes which otherwise pass off undetected in macro-understanding of governance.

Science Technology and Innovation

Capacity Building for Sustainable Growth and Poverty Reduction Alfred J. Watkins, Michael Ehst. • Recognition and reward—establishing awards to recognize ...

Science  Technology  and Innovation

Author: Alfred J. Watkins

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821373811

Page: 211

View: 238

This book summarizes, and highlights main messages from, a February 2007 Global Forum convened by the World Bank to discuss strategies, programs, and policies for building science, technology and innovation (STI) capacity to promote sustainable growth and poverty reduction in developing countries.

Livestock a pathway out of poverty ILRI s strategy to 2010

... development projects to poverty reduction Outputs Concepts and principles of livestock systems capacity to deliver pro - poor innovation under different ...

Livestock  a pathway out of poverty  ILRI s strategy to 2010

Author:

Publisher: ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD)

ISBN:

Page: 24

View: 768

Understanding poverty and the role of livestock in reducing poverty. Pathways out of poverty. How ILRI and its partners can help reduce poverty. Guiding principles for strategic planning. Strategic research themes. Implications of the strategic research themes. ILRI's path ahead.

Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest based Bioproducts

... a fossil-fuel to a bio-based economy: the politics of industrial biotechnology. ... M (2008) Why forests are important for global poverty alleviation ...

Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest based Bioproducts

Author: Andreja Kutnar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811006555

Page: 248

View: 690

This book provides a comprehensive description of traditional and innovative forest-based bioproducts, from pulp and paper, wood-based composites and wood fuels to chemicals and fiber-based composites. The descriptions of different types of forest-based bioproducts are supplemented by the environmental impacts involved in their processing, use, and end-of-life phase. Further, the possibility of reusing, recycling and upgrading bioproducts at the end of their projected life cycle is discussed. As the intensity of demand for forest biomass is currently changing, forest-based industries need to respond with innovative products, business models, marketing and management. As such, the book concludes with a chapter on the bioproducts business and these products’ role in bioeconomies.

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Will these technologies contribute to poverty alleviation efforts? ... in SSA translates into a relatively poor biotechnology innovative capacity.

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Author: Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896297950

Page: 244

View: 653

A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

Rice Biofortification

... 4: Promoting poverty alleviation and sustainable management of water, land, ... institutional innovation to support sustainable reduction of poverty and ...

Rice Biofortification

Author: Sally Brooks

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849710996

Page: 178

View: 479

'A deeply thought-provoking book, this study of biofortification in rice explores how and why public science so often irons out complex needs into a demand for pre-packaged solutions....[This] book is essential reading for both critics and proponents of biotechnology in international development.'-Paul Richards, Professor of Technology and Agrarian Development, Wageningen University, The Netherlands 'A lucid analysis of the decision-making in international agricultural research, which emphasizes a technical, commercial approach. Malnutrition is far better tackled with a biodiversity approach that makes available local foods that can be eaten fresh and are free.'-Suman Sahai, Convenor, Gene Campaign, New Delhi 'Rice Biofortification convincingly illustrates the tenacity of the top-down linear research paradigm, which unfortunately still dominates the international agricultural resarch agenda. How researchers can effectively work with local contexts is an important issue, which the author handles admirably.'-Joachim Voss, independent reesearch professional, formerly Director General of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia Biofortification - the enrichment of staple food crops with essential micronutrients -has been heralded as a uniquely sustainable solution to the problem of micronutrient deficiency, or 'hidden hunger'. Considerable attention and resources are being directed towards the biofortification of rice - the world's most important food crop. Through an in-depth analysis of international rice biofortification efforts, from offices in the US to laboratory and field sites in the Philippines, this book provides an important critique of such goal-oriented, top-down approaches. The author argues that these approaches exemplify a model of global 'public goods' science that is emerging within complex international research networks. It provides vital lessons for those researching and making decisions about science and research policy, showing that if this model becomes entrenched, it is likely to channel resources towards the search for 'silver bullet' solutions, at the expense of more incremental approaches that respond to locality, diversity and the complex and uncertain interactions between people and their environments. The author proposes a series of key changes to institutions and practices that might allow more context-responsive alternatives to emerge. These issues are particularly important now as increasing concerns over food security are leading donors and policy-makers to commit to ambitious visions of 'impact at scale' - visions which may never become a reality and may preclude more effective pathways from being pursued.

Biotechnology

... for the marketing and distribution of inputs) induce biotechnology innovations? ... development policy which could contribute to poverty alleviation.

Biotechnology

Author: Iftikhar Ahmed

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349128651

Page: 275

View: 432

Investigates current applications of biotechnology in developing countries and their impact on the rural poor. Can biotechnologies be specifically designed and deliberately released to alleviate rural poverty, or will they accentuate existing inequalities?