Advanced Fuel Cycles for Light Water Reactors

This book proposes several solutions to improve the cycle of a Light Water Reactor (LWR).

Advanced Fuel Cycles for Light Water Reactors

Author: Fausto Franceschini

Publisher: VDM Publishing

ISBN: 9783836453813

Page: 240

View: 149

The increasing global concerns about carbon emission and secure energy generation spurred a renewed interest in nuclear energy, alongside with development of advanced nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycles. This book proposes several solutions to improve the cycle of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). It focuses in particular on development of fuel cycles and operational strategies for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), an advanced LWR with integral design developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse. The solutions proposed combine proven LWR technology with innovative engineering, therefore enabling IRIS, and the larger class of advanced LWRs, to meet aggressive licensing schedule without forgoing key economic and safety requirements for the fuel cycle of an advanced plant. Since the study has been performed through a joint collaboration with the nuclear industry, focus is maintained not only on the quality and innovation of the solutions proposed but also on their effective applicability in the near future. For these reasons, this book will appeal both the researcher and the engineer interested in the future of the nuclear energy.

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide.

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

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The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program's understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power's cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas:? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either?single-tier? or?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research.

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy  Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

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The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a?single-tier? system or a?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas:? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either?single-tier? or?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear fuel cycle Development of advanced tools for designing reactors with reduced margins and lower costs? Long-term nuclear reactor development requires basic science breakthroughs: Understanding of materials behavior under extreme environmental conditions Creation of new, efficient, environmentally benign chemical separations methods Modeling and simulation to improve nuclear reaction cross-section data, design new materials and separation system, and propagate uncertainties within the fuel cycle Improvement of proliferation resistance by strengthening safeguards technologies and decreasing the attractiveness of nuclear materials A series of translational tools is proposed to advance the AFCI objectives and to bring the basic science concepts and processes promptly into the technological sphere. These tools have the potential to revolutionize the approach to nuclear engineering R & D by replacing lengthy experimental campaigns with a rigorous approach based on modeling, key fundamental experiments, and advanced simulations.

Nuclear Energy Materials And Reactors Volume I

These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Nuclear Energy Materials And Reactors   Volume I

Author: Yassin A. Hassan

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848263112

Page: 428

View: 301

Nuclear Energy Materials and Reactors is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Nuclear energy is a type of technology involving the controlled use of nuclear fission to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity. The theme on Nuclear Energy Materials and Reactors discusses: Fundamentals of Nuclear Energy; Nuclear Physics; Nuclear Interactions; Nuclear Reactor Theory; Nuclear Reactor Design; Nuclear Reactor Kinetics; Reactivity Changes; Nuclear Power Plants; Pressurized Water Reactors; Boiling Water Reactors; Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors; Heavy Water Light Water Reactors; Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors; Light Water Graphite Reactors; High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors; Pebble Bed Modular Reactor; Radioactive Wastes, Origins, Classification and Management; Nuclear Reactor Overview and Reactor Cycles; The Nuclear Reactor Closed Cycle; Safety of Boiling Water Reactors; Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors: Review and Status; The Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor; Application of Risk Assessment to Nuclear Power Plants; Production and Recycling Resources for Nuclear Fission. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Impact of Separation Capacity on Transition to Advanced Fuel Cycles

In this work, a scenario study involving two advanced fuel cycles in addition to the once through fuel cycle were evaluated using VISION nuclear fuel cycle simulation code.

Impact of Separation Capacity on Transition to Advanced Fuel Cycles

Author: Abiodun I. Adeniyi

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One of the proposed solutions to the issue of nuclear waste volume is to transition from once through nuclear fuel cycle to advanced fuel cycles with used fuel recycling option. In any advanced fuel cycles with recycling options, the type and amount of separation technology deployed play a crucial role in the overall performance of the fuel cycle. In this work, a scenario study involving two advanced fuel cycles in addition to the once through fuel cycle were evaluated using VISION nuclear fuel cycle simulation code. The advanced fuel cycles were setup to transition completely to full recycling without any light water reactor by assuming all LWR currently in operation will have 20 years of operating life extension and no new LWR will be constructed thereafter. Several different separation capacities (1kT/yr, 2kT/yr and 4 kT/yr) were deployed and the overall impact of these capacities was analyzed in terms of resources utilization, used fuel and waste material generated and the amount of storage space required. Economic parameter (LCOE, LFCC, etc) analysis was also performed using VISION. ECON. Results presented in this work suggest that the need for LWR-UNF storage can be minimized if sufficient separation capacity is deployed early in the fuel cycle. It can also be concluded that a FuRe system without LEU will not be feasible, thus SFRs must be designed for optional use of LEU fuel. Otherwise LWRs must continue to be part of the mix to keep the near term cost of generating electricity competitive. It was observed that the higher amount of separation capacity deployed in the advanced fuel cycles led to higher LFCC and LCOE, but also translates into less environmental impact on both front and back end of the fuel cycle.

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology

The editors are happy to present the twentieth volume in the review series Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology.

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology

Author: Jeffery Lewins

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461399254

Page: 227

View: 344

The editors are happy to present the twentieth volume in the review series Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology. Lahey and Drew, our first authors, present a concise development of the equations for two-phase flow, essential to the understanding of normal and, even more, accidental behavior in water-cooled reactors. The commitment to the PWR in Europe (now joined by England in this respect) and the aftermath of Chernobyl in the U.S.S.R. put continuing emphasis on the need for good understanding of two-phase phenomena to provide good modelling. The second review, by Downar and Sesonske, of light water reactor fuel modelling, follows this LWR interest and emphasises a current major economic interest: how to get the most out of fuel. Recollecting that the capital cost of nuclear power is high, it is easy to overlook the fact that in the lifetime of a plant as much money is spent on fuel as capital. Optimization is worthwhile. The U.S. scene still does not practice recycling whereas the European scene does. Now that the United Kingdom is building its first (commercial) light water reactor, the linear modelling of burnup exploited by the second authors will prove even more useful, although previously exploited for advanced gas-cooled reactors. If the U.K. is behind in this respect, the recycling undertaken by France and England has led to trial use of plutonium in thermal reactors but, even more, the availability of plutonium for fast reactors.

Information Basis for Developing Comprehensive Waste Management System US Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan Waste Management Working Group Phase I Report

Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized.

Information Basis for Developing Comprehensive Waste Management System US Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan Waste Management Working Group Phase I Report

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The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors to consider in repository design and optimization were then discussed. Japan is considering various alternatives and options for the geologic disposal facility and the framework for future analysis of repository concepts was discussed. Regarding the advanced waste and storage form development, waste form technologies developed in both countries were surveyed and compared. Potential collaboration areas and activities were next identified. Disposal system optimization processes and techniques were reviewed, and factors to consider in future repository design optimization activities were also discussed. Then the potential collaboration areas and activities related to the optimization problem were extracted.

Nuclear Energy Materials And Reactors Volume II

These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Nuclear Energy Materials And Reactors   Volume II

Author: Yassin A. Hassan

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848263120

Page: 380

View: 476

Nuclear Energy Materials and Reactors is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Nuclear energy is a type of technology involving the controlled use of nuclear fission to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity. The theme on Nuclear Energy Materials and Reactors discusses: Fundamentals of Nuclear Energy; Nuclear Physics; Nuclear Interactions; Nuclear Reactor Theory; Nuclear Reactor Design; Nuclear Reactor Kinetics; Reactivity Changes; Nuclear Power Plants; Pressurized Water Reactors; Boiling Water Reactors; Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors; Heavy Water Light Water Reactors; Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors; Light Water Graphite Reactors; High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors; Pebble Bed Modular Reactor; Radioactive Wastes, Origins, Classification and Management; Nuclear Reactor Overview and Reactor Cycles; The Nuclear Reactor Closed Cycle; Safety of Boiling Water Reactors; Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors: Review and Status; The Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor; Application of Risk Assessment to Nuclear Power Plants; Production and Recycling Resources for Nuclear Fission. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

A Guidebook to Nuclear Reactors

Provides a detailed introduction to nuclear reactors, describing the four commercial types and discussing uranium resources, fuel cycles, advanced reactor systems, and issues and problems concerning the use of nuclear power

A Guidebook to Nuclear Reactors

Author: Anthony V. Nero

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520036611

Page: 289

View: 607

Provides a detailed introduction to nuclear reactors, describing the four commercial types and discussing uranium resources, fuel cycles, advanced reactor systems, and issues and problems concerning the use of nuclear power

3 D Thermal Evaluations for a Fueled Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

Each capsule will have its own temperature control system. Passing a helium-neon gas through the void regions between the fuel compacts and the graphite carrier and between the graphite carrier and the capsule wall will control temperature.

3 D Thermal Evaluations for a Fueled Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

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The DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Generation IV reactor programs are developing new fuel types for use in the current Light Water Reactors and future advanced reactor concepts. The Advanced Gas Reactor program is planning to test fuel to be used in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) nuclear reactor. Preliminary information for assessing performance of the fuel will be obtained from irradiations performed in the Advanced Test Reactor large "B" experimental facility. A test configurations has been identified for demonstrating fuel types typical of gas cooled reactors or fast reactors that may play a role in closing the fuel cycle or increasing efficiency via high temperature operation Plans are to have 6 capsules, each containing 12 compacts, for the test configuration. Each capsule will have its own temperature control system. Passing a helium-neon gas through the void regions between the fuel compacts and the graphite carrier and between the graphite carrier and the capsule wall will control temperature. This design with three compacts per axial level was evaluated for thermal performance to ascertain the temperature distributions in the capsule and test specimens with heating rates that encompass the range of initial heat generation rates.

Advanced Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Technologies

Current U.S. nuclear energy policy focuses on the near-term construction of improved versions of existing nuclear power plants.

Advanced Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Technologies

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Page: 15

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Current U.S. nuclear energy policy focuses on the near-term construction of improved versions of existing nuclear power plants. All of today's U.S. nuclear plants are light water reactors (LWRs), which are cooled by ordinary water. Under current policy, the highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel from LWRs is to be permanently disposed of in a deep underground repository. The Bush Administration is also promoting an aggressive U.S. effort to move beyond LWR technology into advanced reactors and fuel cycles. Specifically, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), under the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing advanced reprocessing (or recycling) technologies to extract plutonium and uranium from spent nuclear fuel, as well as an advanced reactor that could fully destroy long-lived radioactive isotopes. DOE's Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative is developing other advanced reactor technologies that could be safer than LWRs and produce high-temperature heat to make hydrogen. DOE's advanced nuclear technology programs date back to the early years of the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1940s and 1950s. In particular, it was widely believed that breeder reactors -- designed to produce maximum amounts of plutonium from natural uranium -- would be necessary for providing sufficient fuel for a large commercial nuclear power industry. Early research was also conducted on a wide variety of other power reactor concepts, some of which are still under active consideration. Although long a goal of nuclear power proponents, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is also seen as a weapons proliferation risk, because plutonium extracted for new reactor fuel can also be used for nuclear weapons. Therefore, a primary goal of U.S. advanced fuel cycle programs, including GNEP, has been to develop recycling technologies that would not produce pure plutonium that could easily be diverted for weapons use. The "proliferation resistance" of these technologies is subject to considerable debate. Much of the current policy debate over advanced nuclear technologies is being conducted in the appropriations process. For FY2009, the House Appropriations Committee recommended no further funding for GNEP, although it increased funding for the Generation IV program. Typically, the Senate is more supportive of GNEP and reprocessing technologies. Recent industry studies conducted for the GNEP program conclude that advanced nuclear technologies will require many decades of government-supported development before they reach the current stage of LWRs. Key questions before Congress are whether the time has come to move beyond laboratory research on advanced nuclear technologies to the next, more expensive, development stages and what role, if any, the federal government should play.

Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Additional fuel cycle scenarios presented for the first time in this work assume the deployment of innovative recycling reactor technologies such as the Reduced Moderation Boiling Water Reactors and Uranium-235 initiated Fast Reactors.

Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Author: Stefano Passerini

Publisher:

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Page: 309

View: 672

For decades, nuclear energy development was based on the expectation that recycling of the fissionable materials in the used fuel from today's light water reactors into advanced (fast) reactors would be implemented as soon as technically feasible in order to extend the nuclear fuel resources. More recently, arguments have been made for deployment of fast reactors in order to reduce the amount of higher actinides, hence the longevity of radioactivity, in the materials destined to a geologic repository. The cost of the fast reactors, together with concerns about the proliferation of the technology of extraction of plutonium from used LWR fuel as well as the large investments in construction of reprocessing facilities have been the basis for arguments to defer the introduction of recycling technologies in many countries including the US. In this thesis, the impacts of alternative reactor technologies on the fuel cycle are assessed. Additionally, metrics to characterize the fuel cycles and systematic approaches to using them to optimize the fuel cycle are presented. The fuel cycle options of the 2010 MIT fuel cycle study are re-examined in light of the expected slower rate of growth in nuclear energy today, using the CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis). The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is considered as the base-line case, while advanced technologies with fuel recycling characterize the alternative fuel cycle options available in the future. The options include limited recycling in LWRs and full recycling in fast reactors and in high conversion LWRs. Fast reactor technologies studied include both oxide and metal fueled reactors. Additional fuel cycle scenarios presented for the first time in this work assume the deployment of innovative recycling reactor technologies such as the Reduced Moderation Boiling Water Reactors and Uranium-235 initiated Fast Reactors. A sensitivity study focused on system and technology parameters of interest has been conducted to test the robustness of the conclusions presented in the MIT Fuel Cycle Study. These conclusions are found to still hold, even when considering alternative technologies and different sets of simulation assumptions. Additionally, a first of a kind optimization scheme for the nuclear fuel cycle analysis is proposed and the applications of such an optimization are discussed. Optimization metrics of interest for different stakeholders in the fuel cycle (economics, fuel resource utilization, high level waste, transuranics/proliferation management, and environmental impact) are utilized for two different optimization techniques: a linear one and a stochastic one. Stakeholder elicitation provided sets of relative weights for the identified metrics appropriate to each stakeholder group, which were then successfully used to arrive at optimum fuel cycle configurations for recycling technologies. The stochastic optimization tool, based on a genetic algorithm, was used to identify non-inferior solutions according to Pareto's dominance approach to optimization. The main tradeoff for fuel cycle optimization was found to be between economics and most of the other identified metrics.

Nuclear Power

This volume summarizes the status of nuclear power, analyzes the obstacles to resumption of construction of nuclear plants, and describes and evaluates the technological alternatives for safer, more economical reactors.

Nuclear Power

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309043956

Page: 234

View: 920

The construction of nuclear power plants in the United States is stopping, as regulators, reactor manufacturers, and operators sort out a host of technical and institutional problems. This volume summarizes the status of nuclear power, analyzes the obstacles to resumption of construction of nuclear plants, and describes and evaluates the technological alternatives for safer, more economical reactors. Topics covered include Institutional issues--including regulatory practices at the federal and state levels, the growing trends toward greater competition in the generation of electricity, and nuclear and nonnuclear generation options. Critical evaluation of advanced reactors--covering attributes such as cost, construction time, safety, development status, and fuel cycles. Finally, three alternative federal research and development programs are presented.